Huynh Thanh Toi *

* Correspondence: Huynh Thanh Toi (email:

Main Article Content


Bacteria naturally occurring in Artemia culture systems act as direct food for the culture organism and also promoter food digestion. However, in the open culture conditions Artemia consume plenty of food sources availability in the pond makes it difficult to evaluate the role of associated bacteria in growth enhancement. So that, this study was conducted under gnotobiotic culture conditions to evaluate the effect of associated bacteria on growth performance (in term of survival and individual length) of Artemia. Bacteria-free baker´s yeast Saccharomyses cerevisiae strain wild-type (WT) was used as a main food source for bacteria-free Artemia nauplii in 6-day culturing. Nine unidentified bacteria strains (HT1-HT9), isolated from culture water of well performance Artemia in our preliminary test, some of these isolates had proven as a diet for Artemia, were added to Artemia culture only one time at a pre-tested concentration of 5x106 cells/mL. The results of this study showed that Artemia performance increased in almost cultures where isolate added as compared to that obtained in Artemia fed WT solely. Especially, the total length of Artemia/tube was obtained nearly double in the culture where HT1, HT3, HT5 and HT7 added, compared to that obtained in WT fed Artemia solely. The results of this study indicated that Artemia not only act as a direct food and the presence of them in the cultures also improvement of Artemia performance.
Keywords: Artemia, associated bacteria, gnotobiotic, Saccharomyses cerevisiae yeast

Article Details


Anh, N.T.N., 2009. Optimisation of Artemia biomass production in salt ponds in Vietnam and use as feed ingredient in local aquaculture. PhD thesis, Ghent University, Belgium.

Asad, W., Asif, M., and Rasool, S.A., 2011. Extracellular enzyme production by indigenous thermophilic bacteria: Partial purification and characterization of Α-amylase by Bacillus sp. WA21. Pak. J. Bot. 43(2): 1045-1052.

Austin, B., 1988. Marine microbiology. Cambridge University Press. Cambridge.

Baert, P., Anh, N.T.N., Quynh, V.D., Hoa, N.V., and Sorgeloos, P., 1997. Increasing cyst yields in Artemia culture ponds in Vietnam: the multi-cycle system. Aquaculture Research. 28(10): 809-814.

Brands, J., 1996. The potential of Artemia Biomass in the Salinas of Southern Vietnam and its valorization in aquaculture, Final report scientific progress ECC

Coutteau, P., Lavens, P., and Sorgeloos, P., 1990. Baker's yeast as a potential substitute for live algae in aquaculture diets: Artemia as a case study. Journal of the World Aquaculture Society. 21(1): 1-9.

Douillet, P., 1987. Effects of bacteria on the nutrition of the brine shrimp Artemia fed on dried diets, p. 295-308. In: P. Sorgeloos, D. Bengtson, W. Decleir, and E. Jaspers (Eds.). Artemia research and its applications. Universa Press, Wetteren, Belgium. 3: 295-308.

Gorospe, J.N., Nakamura, K., Abe, M., Higashi, S., 1996. Nutritional contribution of Pseudomonas sp. in Artemia culture. Fisheries Science. 62(6): 914-918.

Intriago, P. and DJones, A., 1993. Bacteria as food for Artemia. Aquaculture. 113(1-2): 115-127.

Loka, J., Sonali, S.M., Purbali, S., Devaraj, K., and Philipose, K.K., 2016. Use of commercial probiotics for the improvement of water quality and rotifer density in outdoor mass culture tanks. Indian J. Fish. 63(4): 145-149.

Marques, A., Dhont, J., Sorgeloos, P., and Bossier, P., 2004. Evaluation of different yeast cell wall mutants and microalgae strains as feed for gnotobiotically grown brine shrimp Artemia franciscana. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 312(1): 115-136.

Marques, A., Dinh, T., Ioakeimidis, C., et al., 2005. Effects of bacteria on Artemia franciscana cultured in different gnotobiotic environments. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 71(8): 4307-4317.

Marques, A., Huynh, T. T., Verstraete, W., J. Dhont, Sorgeloos, P., and Bossier, P., 2006. Use of selected bacteria and yeast to protect gnotobiotic Artemia against different pathogens. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology. 334(1): 20-30

Niu, Y., Defoirdt, T., Barauh, K., et al., 2014. Bacillus sp. LT3 improves the survival of gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) larvae challenged with Vibrio campbellii by enhancing the innate immune response and by decreasing the activity of shrimp-associated vibrios. Veterinary Microbiology.173(3-4): 279-288.

Seale, A., 1933. The brine shrimp (Artemia) as a satisfactory live food for fishes. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society. 63(1): 129-130.

Soltanian, S., Dhont, J., Sorgeloos, P., and Bossier, P., 2007. Influence of different yeast cell-wall mutants on performance and protection against pathogenic bacteria (Vibrio campbellii) in gnotobiotically-grown Artemia. Fish & Shellfish Immunology. 23(1): 141-153.

Sorgeloos, P., Lavens, P., Léger, P., Tackaert W., and Versichele D., 1986. Manual for the culture and use of brine shrimp Artemia in aquaculture. Artemia reference Center, State Ghent University, Belgium, 319 pages.

Sorgeloos, P., Dhert, P., and Candreva, P., 2001. Use of the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., in marine fish larviculture. Aquaculture. 200(1-2): 147-159.

Sorgeloos, P., Bossuyt, E., Laviña, E., Baeza-Mesa, M., and Persoone, G., 1977. Decapsulation of Artemia cysts: A simple technique for the improvement of the use of brine shrimp in aquaculture." Aquaculture. 12(4): 311-315.

Titapoka, S., Suttipun K., Dietmar H., and Sunee N., 2008. Selection and characterization of mannanase-producing bacteria useful for the formation of prebiotic manno-oligosaccharides from copra meal. World J Microbiol. Biotechnol. 24(8):1425-1433

Toi, H. T., Boeckx, P., Sorgeloos, P., Bossier P., and Van Stappen, G., 2013. Bacteria contribute to Artemia nutrition in algae-limited conditions: A laboratory study. Aquaculture. 388-391: 1-7.

Toi, H. T., Boeckx, P., Sorgeloos, P., Bossier, P., and Van Stappen, G., 2014. Co-feeding of microalgae and bacteria may result in increased N assimilation in Artemia as compared to mono-diets, as demonstrated by a 15N isotope uptake laboratory study. Aquaculture. 422-423: 109-114.

Verschuere, L., Heang, H., Criel, G., Sorgeloos, P., and Verstraete, W., 2000. Selected bacterial strains protect Artemia spp. from the pathogenic effects of Vibrio proteolyticus CW8T2. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 66(3): 1139-1146.

Yasuda, L. and Taga, N., 1980. A mass culture method for Artemia salina using bacteria as food. Lamer (Bulletin de la Sociétéfranco-japonaised' oceanographic). 18(2): 55-62.