Welcome to CTU Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development

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CTU Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, ISSN 2588-1418 and e-ISSN 2815-6412, formerly known as Can Tho University Journal of Science which was established in 2015 with assigned codes ISSN 2615-9422 and e-ISSN 2815-5602. The Journal is published by Can Tho University with one volume and three issues per volume... Read more

Resistance of Citrus species (Citrus spp.) to the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus sp.

Le Thi Tu Anh, Nguyen Quoc Si, La Hoang Chau, Ba Phu Nguyen*
Abstract | PDF
The study was carried out to evaluate the resistance of various domestic citrus species to the root lesion nematode Pratylenchus sp. for further research in rootstock selection as well as nematode management. The experiment was accomplished in a completely randomized design with 19 popular citrus species as 19 treatments, with thirty repeats and one plant for each experimental unit. The population of the nematode after 15 days of inoculation was calculated from growing media and roots for classifying the resistance capability of Citrus species. As a result, referred to the statistical analysis results and the Reproductive Index of the target nematode, they were suggestively classified into 5 distinctive groups: (i) resistant species: C. grandis var. Duong La Cam, C. maxima var. Tam Quy, L. littoralis, C. nobilis var. typica; (ii) moderately resistant specie: C. nobilis var. Sanh; (iii) moderately susceptible species: C. latifolia, C. macroptera, C. sinensis cv. Soan, C. microcarpa , and C. reticulata var. Duong; (iv) susceptible species: C. maxima var. Da Xanh, C. maxima var. Long Co Co, C. maxima var. Nam Roi, C. sinensis var. Mat, and C. nobilis var. chrysocarpa; (v) highly susceptible species: C. limonia, C. hystrix,  C. volkameriana and P. trifoliatus. Therefore, C. grandis var. Duong La Cam, C. maxima var. Tam Quy, L. littoralis, and C. nobilis var. typica could be further researched to select appropriate rootstocks for citrus cultivation in the nematode-infected regions.

The application of Gene Function Markers for identification of high quality of Vietnamese traditional rice varieties

Ky Huynh*, Nguyen Van Manh, Pham An Tinh, Pham Vo Thao Nguyen, Huynh Nhu Dien, Le Thi Hong Thanh
Abstract | PDF
In today's growing economy, consumer demand for rice is evolving, with a preference for high-quality varieties that are soft and aromatic when cooked. We conducted a study to identify high-quality rice varieties that meet these consumer preferences. Molecular markers were used to find genes linked to desirable traits in rice. These genes are DRR-GL for grain length (gene GS3), Wxin1 for amylose content (gene Wx), and BADH2 for aroma. The findings revealed that the molecular marker DRR-GL, used with primers EFP, IRSP, ERP, and IFLP, accounted for 90% of the expression of the long-grain phenotype. Similarly, the Wxin1 marker, with primers GF, TR, GR, and TF, explained 90% of the variation in amylose content. The BADH2 marker, using primers ESP and IFAP, INSP, and EAP, accounted for 100% of the aroma phenotype expression across all tested varieties. Among the 20 traditional rice varieties examined, the variety Nep Trong Vo exhibited superior qualities, including an elongated grain length of 7.13 mm, an average amylose content of 17.58%, a soft gel consistency graded at 3, and high heat resistance also graded at 3. These characteristics make Nep Trong Vo a promising candidate for meeting the high-quality standards demanded by consumers.

Evaluating the performance of Random Forest, Decision Tree, Support Vector Regression and Gradient Boosting for streamflow prediction

Osahon Idemudia, Jacob Odeh Ehiorobo, Osadolor Christopher Izinyon, Idowu Rudolph Ilaboya*
Abstract | PDF
This study utilized a range of machine learning algorithms to predict the hourly streamflow in the Ikpoba River. Data gathering relied on a Hydromet System installed along the river, collecting hourly measurements of gage height, ambient temperature, and atmospheric pressure. To convert the gage height to streamflow data, historical gage and streamflow data covering the period from 2015 to 2020 were extracted from the Ikpoba River rating curve and were analyzed using curve fitting techniques to establish the precise relationship between streamflow and gage height. Various goodness-of-fit measures, such as adjusted R-squared value, standard error of estimate, and coefficient of determination, were utilized to identify the best-fit relationship. The estimated streamflow data were subsequently validated using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool, incorporating the digital elevation model of the study area, along with other input parameters like soil, slope, daily maximum precipitation, and daily maximum temperature. Validation results were illustrated using regression plots generated in Microsoft Excel. From the machine learning results, random forest algorithm outperformed other methods in predicting streamflow, with a mean square error of 0.02 and a coefficient of determination of 0.98. Conversely, decision trees showed superior accuracy in predicting individual data points, with the lowest root-mean-square error of 0.02.

An entire fruit surface imaging system with the support of a mirror system and a flipping mechanism

Tran Nhut Thanh*, Truong Minh Thuan, Huynh Cao Tan Toi, Pham Quoc Cong, Nguyen Chanh Nghiem, Nguyen Chi Ngon
Abstract | PDF
Computer vision is considered a useful tool for evaluating the external quality of fruits. Some solutions for capturing the entire surface image of fruits have been implemented, but they still have limitations, such as not being able to guarantee capturing the entire surface, bulky, or expensive. In this study, a two-shot and simple system for capturing the entire surface image of fruits was proposed. With the support of a mirror system, the top and lateral surfaces of the fruits were captured. To capture the bottom surface of the fruits, a flip mechanism has been integrated into the system. Testing results with pomelo and mango showed that the entire surface of the fruits was fully observed with two shots. This shows that the proposed system has great potential for imaging the entire surface of fruits. Besides, this solution can also be easily integrated into automatic inspection applications to evaluate the quality of agricultural and other products.

Health risk assessment of heavy metals transfer from soil to Celosia trigyna and Amaranthus viridis along Lekki Peninsula, Lagos, Nigeria

Peter Sanjo Adewale*
Abstract | PDF
Globally, there is growing concern about the transfer of heavy metals into human food and water due to their ability to move from soil to plants. This study evaluated the health risks associated with the transfer of heavy metals from soil to Celosia trigyna and Amaranthus viridis along the Lekki Peninsula in Lagos. Soil and vegetable samples were collected from 12 locations, and the levels of heavy metals in the samples were determined using an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Soil pH was slightly acidic (5.31 –6.82). EC values range from 121 to 382µs/cm, while low soil CEC, N, TOC and OM were recorded in all the study sites. The concentrations of heavy metals in the soils were in this order: Zn >Cu>Mn >Cd>Pb. The uptake of metals by the vegetables was in the order Cu>Zn>Mn>Cd>Pb. Estimated Daily Intake (EDI) from Consumption of C. trigyna and A. viridis ranged between 0.1320-0.000mg-1kg-1adult-1d-1. The Health Risk Index ranged from 5.23 to 0.01. The total Hazard Index was 41.75. The concentration of heavy metals in the vegetables was a function of contaminated soil and toxic elements deposition from passing vehicles. Following the hazard index result, the vegetables in locations 1 – 6 are not safe for human consumption.

Can Tho University’s research collaboration: A view from its publications

Tran Thi Ngoc Nhung*, Pham Hoang Son, Le Ngoc Linh
Abstract | PDF
Analyzing research collaboration within a university through its publication outputs is crucial for academia and research management. It helps understand knowledge exchange dynamics, inter-departmental and inter-institutional cooperation, and research impact, thereby promoting innovation and contributing to the scientific community. By examining co-authorship networks and publication metadata, we reveal the collaborative efforts at Can Tho University (CTU). This information supports interdisciplinary research, identifies influential researchers and departments, benchmarks against peers, and assesses research impact. Such insights enable the university to enhance research strategies, partnerships, and academic excellence.In this paper, we analyze CTU-affiliated publications to uncover inter-organizational, international, and industry collaborations, and identify predominant areas of collaboration. Our study examines 3,322 Dimensions publications from 2012 to 2023 to provide a comprehensive overview of CTU's collaborative landscape.

Going beyond borders after a pandemic: Preparedness of teachers to embrace E-learning in a small Philippine university

Dyanika P. Nolasco*, Danisse Mae P. Hernandez
Abstract | PDF
The global pandemic posed considerable challenges to education, necessitating educators to adopt various teaching methods, particularly those conducted through online platforms. To do this effectively, teachers needed readiness, skills, and dedication. A study was undertaken with 119 higher education teachers from different fields in a state institution, using both surveys and interviews to collect data. The findings revealed that these instructors were prepared for online teaching as they had the necessary devices, such as cell phones and laptops, access to wireless internet, and moderate internet speed, though it sometimes became slow when multiple devices were connected. The faculty exhibited proficient technological skills, making them competent in using technology. Despite difficulties, they displayed a positive attitude and efficient time management. The study suggests that teachers' readiness to adopt e-learning as an alternative to traditional classroom teaching could be a powerful solution to the significant challenges posed by the pandemic. Teachers' ability to adapt and embrace online teaching, supported by their technological proficiency and positive mindset, is seen as a potential remedy to the educational obstacles during the pandemic. Their preparedness to navigate this shift may offer a way to overcome the difficulties encountered in the education sector during these unprecedented times.

The art of classroom observation: The Case of Quirino State University and Can Tho University

Liriolyn B. Pacursa, Eduard P. Alip, Thi Phuong Thao-Do*, Trinh Chi Tham
Abstract | PDF
Classroom observation is a professional development model that helps lecturers gain a lot of experience in teaching effectively through cooperation, but it needs to be done in a reasonable way. The purpose of this study is to investigate the advantages and disadvantages of classroom observation and the strategies used by lecturers at College of Teacher Education (CTE), Quirino State University - Maddela Area the Philippines and School of Education (SoE), Can Tho University, Viet Nam used, correlated to the age, teaching experience, and education level of the respondents and to see whether there are any significant differences in the two cultures. The researchers used a descriptive type of design in the study, with a survey as the primary instrument for the data gathering. Using a quota sampling technique, 40 lecturers participated in the study. Based on the findings of the study, the majority of faculty members of CTE underwent classroom observation once per semester, whereas the majority of lecturers at SoE underwent classroom observation twice per semester. Moreover, the advantages of classroom observations outweigh the disadvantages as perceived by respondents. This finding provided evidence that both institutions implemented classroom observation for their lecturers. This simultaneously encourages lecturers to reflect and develop self-awareness about their practice and provides evidence of actual teacher performance, their strengths, and their areas for improvement. Thus, applicable recommendations for professional and organizational growth were made based on the found specific challenges to foster a collaborative environment favorable to improving teaching quality.

International research outputs of Can Tho University: The first, the most, and the top

Tran Thi Ngoc Nhung*, Le Ngoc Linh
Abstract | PDF
This research reviews the expansion of academic literature generated by Can Tho University (CTU), as indexed on Scopus, Web of Science (WoS), and Dimensions databases. We examine various aspects of CTU's international research outputs, including domains of study, author data, publication statistics, and citation counts. The results reveal that both the quantity and quality of CTU's international research papers have steadily increased over the years. These findings are expected to provide CTU's leaders, administrators, and scholars with a comprehensive overview of the institution's research landscape over recent periods, enabling them to make well-informed decisions regarding the future direction of its research mission.

Lesson study: A cross-cultural analysis between the Philippines and Viet Nam

Romiro G. Bautista, Wilfredo B. Baniqued, Huynh Thi Thuy Diem*, Mai Phuc Thinh
Abstract | PDF
Lesson study is a type of teacher-driven study in Japan in which teachers work together to enhance a specific aspect of their students’ learning. It is a cycle of inquiry that encourages instructors to try, observe, and improve. This paper compares respondents’ understanding of lesson study’s educational potential in various dimensions, analyzing relationships and testing a theoretical model to explain factors influencing its employment in specific educational settings. The study utilized quantitative research and comparative analysis to compare lesson study methods in Quirino, Philippines, and Can Tho, Viet Nam, examining connections between variables. The results show that respondents in their various school and classroom cultures have a generally positive attitude about the setting up and carrying out of the lesson study. The apparent disparity in reactions between Quirino, Philippines, and Can Tho, Viet Nam highlights the importance of local educational traditions and regulations on lesson study adoption. Because of the dynamic interaction between nations, age groups, and views of lesson study, educational institutions may build focused interventions that address specific challenges, utilize generational strengths, and foster a collaborative environment favorable to improve teaching quality.

Effects of salt concentration and Lactobacillus plantarum population on grey oyster mushroom fermentation

Tong Thi Anh Ngoc*, Nguyen Le Thanh cao, Nguyen Le Thanh Bach, Nguyen Cam Tu, Phan Nguyen Trang
Abstract | PDF
This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of different conditions (i.e., different salt concentrations from 3.5 to 4.5%, and initial Lactobacillus plantarum populations from 104 to 106 CFU/mL) on the quality of fermentative grey oyster mushrooms at 15oC during 25 days. The quality parameters i.e., total color difference, texture, total soluble solid, pH, lactic acid bacteria counts, total polyphenol content (TPC) and the free radical scavenging activity were measured during the fermentation. The results illustrated that the fermentation of grey oyster mushrooms would be in NaCl (3.5%) and initial Lactobacillus plantarum (104 CFU/mL). The obtained data showed that although no significant difference was observed among different salt concentrations and inoculum starter culture on the quality of fermented mushrooms, the fermentation conditions enhanced the rising of TPC resulting in an increase in antioxidant activities of fermented oyster mushrooms. This study reveals that fermented grey oyster mushrooms can be used as a source of healthy plant-based foods by vegetarians to improve their nutrition diet.

Developments and antioxidant evaluation of Sesbania sesban-leaf-extract loaded carboxymethyl cellulose hydrogel as a potential skin cosmetic

Nguyen Thi Ngoc Phuong, Nguyen Doan Xuan Tien, Nguyen Ngoc Yen, Nguyen Quoc Chau Thanh, Pham Duy Toan*
Abstract | PDF
Natural antioxidant products are receiving great attention as a safe alternative to chemically synthesized ones. For this, the phenolic compounds in the Sesbania sesban L. leaves possess potential antioxidant activities. Therefore, in this study, the Sesbania sesban L. leaf extract (SSE) was prepared and incorporated in the carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) hydrogel as a natural antioxidant product. Firstly, the SSE was produced by the sonication-assisted extraction method, which demonstrated a total phenolic content of 61.44 ± 7.23 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry powder weight, and a high antioxidant activity (IC50 = 15.381 ± 1.270 µg/mL). Then, the SSE was loaded into the CMC hydrogel and physicochemically evaluated in terms of physical observation, viscosity, gelation time, and drug release profiles. The hydrogel showed acceptable properties with a gradual release of polyphenol content over two stages for at least 180 min. Finally, utilizing the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) test, the antioxidant action of the SSE was well-maintained in the SSE loaded CMC hydrogel. In summary, the SSE loaded CMC hydrogel could be further investigated to become a potential cosmetic in the market.

The effects of implementing the flipped class model on non-English majored students’ writing performance

Ho Bich Nhu*, Nguyen Van Loi, Bui Phuong Thao, Nguyen Van Thong, Nguyen Trung Cang
Abstract | PDF
Education is continuously evolving and adapting to meet the diverse learning needs of students. A significant innovation in this field is the flipped class model, a pedagogical approach that redefines the traditional classroom structure. This creative approach seeks to enhance student-centred learning by combining in-class discussion with pre-class video instruction. This paper aims to investigate its effects on undergraduate students' writing performance. In this study, the flipped model was implemented to teach writing lessons, aligning sessions with Bloom's Taxonomy. A quasi-experimental design was employed with two groups of eighty non-English major students at a university in the Mekong Delta, South Viet Nam. The experimental group was exposed to the flipped model, while the control group received conventional writing instruction. The treatment consisted of six 50-minute writing sessions. Results show that students in the experimental group achieved higher mean scores compared to their counterparts in the control group. This finding highlights the effects of the flipped classroom technique in enhancing writing proficiency. Pedagogical implications are suggested for teaching writing to learners who study English as a foreign language.

Impact assessment of empowering small-scale farmers through the Mag-Uma Kaupod ang Pamilya Extension (MUKaPE) Program of the DEBESMSCAT-Cawayan Campus

Jacob Frederick P. Velza, Roger Y. Ibañez, Jr*, Froilan D. Mobo
Abstract | PDF
This study examined the effectiveness of the Mag-Uma Kaupod ang Pamilya Extension program in benefiting local farmers in Barangay Itombato. A descriptive research design and purposive sampling were used to select 17 farmer-beneficiaries for interviews. The program demonstrated a positive impact on the production performance and attitudes of farmer-beneficiaries. After the program, the percentage of beneficiaries reporting good yields increased from 35% to 65%, and profitability improved from 35% to 88%. Farmer-beneficiaries reported increased enjoyment of farming, a positive perception of profitability, and a stronger desire for their children to continue farming. Crop cultivation patterns shifted towards diversification and income generation. However, certain challenges faced by the farmer-beneficiaries, including soil fertility, fertilizer management, machinery access, post-harvest infrastructure, and marketing, remained unaddressed. The study emphasized the program's significant positive influence on production performance, with good yields increasing to 65% and profitability rising to 88% after the program. Constraints such as soil fertility, fertilizer management, machinery access, post-harvest infrastructure, and marketing required targeted interventions. The MUKaPE program improved access to agricultural information, support services, farmers' organizations, and training. However, areas such as irrigation, market assistance, and farm-to-market roads still needed improvement. Farmer beneficiaries highlighted the importance of irrigation, fertilizer assistance, market access, training, machinery access, financial support, electrification, and post-harvest facilities for enhancing farming practices. These findings emphasized the need to address water management, input accessibility, infrastructure development, knowledge dissemination, technological advancements, financial support, and value chain enhancement to enhance productivity, profitability, and sustainability in farming activities in Barangay Itombato.

Determinants on green purchasing behavior of generation Y: Empirical evidence in Can Tho city

Ngo My Tran*, Bui Thi Kim Thanh, Tran Buu Hau
Abstract | PDF
This study aims to analyze the determinants of green purchasing behavior of Generation Y in Can Tho city based on the survey data from 180 consumers. The results estimated by PLS - SEM show that concern for the environment has the highest impact on green purchasing intention, followed by green price sensitivity and perceived green behavior control. Besides, the evidence indicates that green purchasing intention has a positive effect on the green purchasing behavior of millennials. Based on the research results, several managerial implications have been proposed for businesses in the industry. These include the need to expand selling locations and distribution channels to increase the convenience of finding green products; organizing environmental awareness campaigns in collaboration with government agencies; developing product pricing strategies that reflect the product's value and consumer benefits; and enhancing consumer intentions by implementing communication campaigns that highlight the information and benefits of green products.