Nguyen Van Ngoc * , Do Tran Tham Thuy , Vu Bao Ngoc and Hoang Thi Binh

* Correspondence: Nguyen Van Ngoc (email:

Main Article Content


In the present study, viscozyme L pre-treatment for aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. (rosemary), grown in Lam Dong province, was performed to evaluate the effective extraction of essential oils by hydro-distillation. Enzymatic pre-treatment with 1 g viscozyme L enzyme mixed with 5 mL sodium chloride 15% at 50oC for 1 hour, followed by hydro-distillation, was seen to slightly increase the yield of rosemary essential oils from 0.96% to 1.08%. GC/MS analysis showed the presence of 32 compounds in rosemary essential oils, of which the major components were α-pinene (29.71 - 32.17%) and cineol (17.55 - 18.74%) in both the control and the enzymatically treated samples. The results also revealed that rosemary essential oils obtained from both the control and the enzymatically treated samples exhibited moderate antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans in all tested concentrations.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, essential oil, enzyme assisted extraction, Lam Dong, Rosmarinus officinalis

Article Details


Abu-Al-Basal, M.A. (2010). Healing potential of Rosmarinus officinalis L. on full-thickness excision cutaneous wounds in alloxan-induced-diabetic BALB/c mice. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 131(2), 443-450.

Adams, R. P. (2007). Identification of essential oil components by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Vol. 456, pp. 544-545). Carol Stream: Allured publishing corporation.

Anh, T. T., Ngan, L. T. T., & Lam, T. D. (2019, July). Essential oil from fresh and dried Rosemary cultivated in Lam Dong province, Vietnam. In IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering (Vol. 544, No. 1, p. 012025). IOP Publishing.

Begum, A., Sandhya, S., Vinod, K.R., Reddy, S., & Banji, D. (2013). An in-depth review on the medicinal flora Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae). Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Technologia Alimentaria, 12(1), 61-74.

Bousbia, N., Vian, M.A., Ferhat, M.A., Petitcolas, E., Meklati, B.Y., & Chemat, F. (2009). Comparison of two isolation methods for essential oil from rosemary leaves: hydro-distillation and microwave hydro-diffusion and gravity. Food Chemistry, 114, 355-362.

Calinescu, I., Gavrila, A.I., Ivopol, M., Ivopol, G.C., Popescu, M., & Mircioaga, N. (2014). Microwave assisted extraction of essential oils of enzymatically pretreated lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Miller). Open Chemistry, 12(8), 829-836.

Carvalho, J.R.N., Moura, L.S., Rosa, P.T., & Meireles, M.A.A. (2005). Supercritical fluid extraction from rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis): Kinetic data, extract's global yield, composition, and antioxidant activity. The Journal of Supercritical Fluids, 35(3), 197-204.

De Billerbeck, V.G. (2007). Huiles essentielles et bactéries résistantes auxantibiotiques. Phytothérapie, 5(5), 249-253.

de Sousa Eduardo, L., Farias, T.C., Ferreira, S.B., Ferreira, P.B., Lima, Z.N., & Ferreira, S.B. (2018). Antibacterial activity and time-kill kinetics of positive enantiomer of α-pinene against strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. Current topics in medicinal chemistry, 18(11), 917-924.

Devillers, J., Steiman, R., & Seigle, F. (1989). The usefulness of the agar-well diffusion method for assessing chemical toxicity to bacteria and fungi. Chemosphere, 19(10-11), 1693-1700.

Diao, W.R., Hu, Q.P., Zhang, H., & Xu, J.G. (2014). Chemical composition, antibacterial activity and mechanism of action of essential oil from seeds of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.). Food Control, 35, 109-116.

Dörrie, J., Sapala, K., & Zunino, S.J. (2001). Carnosol-induced apoptosis and downregulation of Bcl-2 in B-lineage leukemia cells. Cancer letters, 170(1), 33-39.

dos Santos Reis, N., de Santana. N.B., de Carvalho Tavares, I.M., Lessa, O.A., dos Santos, L.R., Pereira, N.E., Soares, G.A., Oliveira, R.A., Oliveira, J.R., & Franco, M. (2020). Enzyme extraction by lab-scale hydro-distillation of ginger essential oil (Zingiber officinale Roscoe): chromatographic and micromorphological analyses. Industrial Crops and Products, 146, 112210.

Gai, Q.Y., Jiao, J., Wei, F.Y., Luo, M., Wang, W., Zu, Y.G., & Fu, Y.J. (2013). Enzyme-assisted aqueous extraction of oil from Forsythia suspense seed and its physicochemical property and antioxidant activity. Industrial Crops and Products, 51, 274-278.

Gil-Chávez, G.J., Villa, J.A., Ayala-Zavala, J.F., Heredia, J.B., Sepulveda, D., Yahia, E.M., & González-Aguilar, G.A. (2013). Technologies for extraction and production of bioactive compounds to be used as nutraceuticals and food ingredients: an overview. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 12(1), 5-23.

Heywood, V., & Skoula, M. (1999). The MEDUSA Network: Conservation and sustainable use of wild plants of the Mediterranean region. Perspectives on new crops and new uses, 148, 151.

Hosni, K., Hassen, I., Chaâbane, H., Jemli, M., Dallali, S., Sebei, H., & Casabianca, H. (2013). Enzyme-assisted extraction of essential oils from thyme (Thymus capitatus L.) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.): Impact on yield, chemical composition and antimicrobial activity. Industrial Crops and Products, 47, 291-299.

Jordán, M.J., María, V.L., Rota, C., Lorán, S., & Sotomayor, J.A. (2013). Effect of bioclimatic area on the essential oil composition and antibacterial activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Food Control, 30(2), 463-468.

Manasa, D., Srinivas, P., & Sowbhagya, H. B. (2013). Enzyme-assisted extraction of bioactive compounds from ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe). Food Chemistry, 139(1-4), 509-514.

Morsy, N.F., & Hammad, K.S. (2021). Extraction of essential oil from methyl cinnamate basil (Ocimum canum Sims) with high yield in a short time using enzyme pretreatment. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 58(7), 2599-2605.

Ngan, T.T.K., Huong, C.N., Tien, L.X., Long, P.Q., Toan, T.Q., Vo, D.M.H., Danh, V.T., Trung, L.N.Y., & Anh, T.T. (2019). Physico-chemical characteristics of Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils grown in Lam Dong Province, Vietnam. Asian Journal of chemistry, 31(12), 2759-2762.

Okoh, O.O., Sadimenko, A.P., & Afolayan, A.J. (2010). Comparative evaluation of the antibacterial activities of the essential oils of Rosmarinus officinalis L. obtained by hydro-distillation and solvent free microwave extraction methods. Food Chemistry, 120(1), 308-312.

Özcan, M.M., & Chalchat, J.C. (2008). Chemical composition and antifungal activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) oil from Turkey. International journal of food sciences and nutrition, 59(7-8), 691-698.

Puri, M., Sharma, D., & Barrow, C.J. (2012). Enzyme-assisted extraction of bioactive from plants. Trends in Biotechnology, 30(1), 37-44.

Saei-Dehkordi, S.S., Tajik, H., Moradi, M., & Khalighi-Sigaroodi, F. (2010). Chemical composition of essential oils in Zataria multiflora Boiss. from different parts of Iran and their radical scavenging and antimicrobial activity. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48(6), 1562-1567.

Sankarikutty, B., & Narayanan, C.S (2003). Essential oils Isolation and production. Encycl. Food Sci. Nutr., 2185–2189.

Sowbhagya, H.B., Purnima, K.T., Florence, S.P., Rao, A.G.A., & Srinivas, P. (2009). Evaluation of enzyme-assisted extraction on quality of garlic volatile oil. Food Chemmistry, 113(4), 1234-1238.

Sowbhagya, H.B., Srinivas, P., & Krishnamurthy, N. (2010). Effect of enzymes on extraction of volatiles from celery seeds. Food Chemistry, 120(1), 230-234.

Sowbhagya, H.B., Srinivas, P., Purnima, K.T., & Krishnamurthy, N. (2011). Enzyme-assisted extraction of volatiles from cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.) seeds. Food Chemistry, 127(4), 1856-1861.

Turrill, W.B. (1920). The genus Rosmarinus. Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information (Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew), 1920(3), 105-108.

Valgas, C., Souza, S.M., Smânia, E.F., & Smânia, Jr.A. (2007). Screening methods to determine antibacterial activity of natural products. Brazilian journal of microbiology, 38(2), 369-380.