Tran Thi Thanh Ngoc and Thai Phuong Vu *

* Correspondence: Thai Phuong Vu (email:

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In Viet Nam, apart from coal-fired power plants, coal slag also emitted from households via coal burning activities. However, the quantity of slag emitted from households has been rarely determined, and most of it is not been well-treated. In addition, it is well-known that the untreated or mistreated coal slag can lead to severe impacts on both the environment and human health. Therefore, it is necessary to evaluate the emission of this slag, and thereafter to provide recommendations for improved management. In this study, the emission of household coal slag in Binh Chanh District of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam was investigated by undertaking a fact-finding survey coupled with GPS. Coal burning experiments were also performed for various fuels including large-sized honeycomb charcoal (3 kg/piece); small-sized honeycomb charcoal (1.7 kg/piece); charcoal (1 kg) and dried firewood with rice husk (1 kg) to estimate the quantity of household coal slag emissions slag, as well as to primarily examine the impact to the environment and human health. Results showed that the emissions of household coal slag in the study area was considerable, up to 146 tonnes per year,  almost 60% of which, was directly discharged into the environment. The burning coal for household purposes was found to dramatically change the quality of air with high concentration of pollutants including formaldehyde (HCHC), total volatile organic compound (TVOC), as well as particulate matters (PM2.5 and PM10) in exceedance of national standards which led to health effects. Finally, solutions for managing the slag were proposed.

Keywords: Coal slag, emission, household, management solution

Article Details


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