Le Anh Tuan *

* Corresponding author (latuan@ctu.edu.vn)

Main Article Content


Coastal erosion is one of the types of geological disasters that is occurring quite commonly and seriously in the Mekong Delta. The problem of landslides and erosions is one of the major concerns for coastal stability. Currently, along 9 coastal provinces, there are over 115 serious erosion and landslide points; each year, a total of 300 –500 hectares of coastal land can be lost. Erosion and landslides narrow the area of mangrove forests, residential land, and aquaculture land of local people.

The Mekong Delta has to spend billions of VND yearly to build breakwaters and sea dikes and restore mangrove forests. Many structural and non-structural measures have been implemented to reduce the risk of erosion over the past two decades. However, there is not much assessment of the sustainability of landslide prevention projects. The research question is what are the challenges and difficulties in the ongoing fight against erosion in the coastal plain. Through a practical approach from surveying works in coastal areas, the results show that choosing an effective solution depends mainly on the cost factor and the terrain of the ground. Water resource management policy on the Mekong River system is difficult to find a satisfactory answer.

Keywords: Coastal areas, erosion, mangrove forest, Mekong Delta, sea dykes, solution

Article Details


Allison, M. A., Nittrouer C. A., Ogston A. S., Mullarney J. C., & Nguyen T. T. (2017). Sedimentation and survival of the Mekong Delta: A case study of decreased sediment supply and accelerating rates of relative sea level rise. Oceanography, 30(3), 98–109.

Dang, T. H., Sylvain, O., & Giap, V. V. (2018). Water and suspended sediment budgets in the lower Mekong from High-Frequency Measurements (2009–2016). Water, 10(7), 846.

Edward, J. A., Guillaume, B., Manon, B., Marc, G., Philippe D., & Nguyen, V. L. (2015). Linking rapid erosion of the Mekong River delta to human activities. Scientific Reports, 5, 14745.

Eslami, S., Hoekstra, P., Nguyen T. N., Sameh A. K., Doan, V. B., Do, D. D., Tho, T. Q., & Maarten, V. D. V. (2019). Tidal amplification and salt intrusion in the Mekong Delta driven by anthropogenic sediment starvation. Scientific Reports, 9, 18746.

Jean-Paul, B., Goichot, M., & Gaillot, S. (2013). Geography of sand and gravel mining in the lower Mekong River. EcoGeo., 26. https://doi.org/10.4000/echogeo.13659

Prime Minister. (2020). Project to prevent riverbank and coastal erosion until 2030 (Decision No. 957/QĐ-TTg).

Prime Minister. (2023). Additional capital from the 2023 central budget provision for provinces in the Mekong Delta to implement the project on river and coastal erosion prevention (Decision No. 1162/QĐ-TTg).

Hudson, R. Y. (1961). Laboratory investigation of rubble-mound breakwaters. Transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers, 126(4), 492-520.

Kondolf, G. M., George, A., & Zan, R. (2015). Sediment starvation from dams in the lower Mekong river basin: magnitude of the effect and potential mitigation opportunities. E-proceedings of the 36th IAHR World Congress 28 June–3 July 2015, the Hague, the Netherlands.

Kondolf, G. M., Schmitt R. J. P., Carling P. A., Goichot M., Keskinen M., Arias M. E., Bizzi S. Castelletti A., Cochrane T. A., Darby S. E., Kummu M., Minderhoud P. S. J., D. Nguyen, Nguyen H. T., Nguyen N. T., Oeurng C., Opperman J., Rubin Z., San D. C., Schmeier S., & Wild T. (2022). Save the Mekong Delta from drowning. Wild Science, 376(6593).

Liu, C., He, Y., Walling, E. D., & Wang, J., (2013). Changes in the sediment load of the Lancang-1174 Mekong River over the period 1965–2003. Sci. China Technol. Sci., 56, 843–852.

Liu, J. P., DeMaster, D. J., Nittrouer, C. A., Eidam, E. F., & Nguyen, T. T. (2017). A seismic study of the Mekong subaqueous delta: Proximal versus distal sediment accumulation. Continental Shelf Research, 147, 197-212.

Meade, R. H. (1996). River-sediment inputs to major deltas. In Sea-level rise and coastal subsidence: Causes, consequences, and strategies (pp. 63-85). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Milliman, J., & Syvitski, J. (1992). Geomorphic tectonic control of sediment discharge to ocean – The importance of small mountainous rivers. The Journal of Geology, 100(5), 525-544.

Ta, T. K. O., Nguyen, V. L., Masaaki, T., Iwao, K., & Yoshiki, S. (2005). Holocene Delta Evolution and Depositional Models of the Mekong River Delta, Southern Vietnam. In Bhattacharya.P., Giosan L. (Eds.), River Deltas—Concepts, Models, and Examples, (pp. 453–466). Society for Sedimentary Geology. http://sedimentary-geology-tore.com/catalog/book/river-deltas-concepts-models-and-examples

Thorsten, A., Dinh, C. S., & Klaus, S. (2013). Coastal protection in the lower Mekong Delta. GIZ’s Shoreline Management Guidelines.

Tuan, L. A., & Wyseure, G. (2007, December). Water Environmental Governance in the Mekong River Delta, Vietnam. In The 2nd International Symposium on Water Environment Partnership in Asia, Date: 2007/12/03-2007/12/04, Location: Oita, Japan. WEPA (Japan).

US Army Corps of Engineers. (2011). Coastal Engineering Manual EM 1110-2-1100. Part VI, chapter 5. p. 73.

US Army Corps of Engineers. (1984). Shore Protection Manual (4th ed.). Coastal Engineering Research Center.

Vietnam Disaster Management Authority. (2018). Coastal protection for the Mekong Delta (CPMD): A decision support tool. http://coastal-protection-mekongdelta.com/