Minh Ly Nguyen * and Le Thi Mai

* Correspondence: Minh Ly Nguyen (email: nmly@ued.udn.vn)

Main Article Content


Tru Long pummelo is an endemic plant of Quang Nam province with high economic value. However, many different diseases, especially brown spot disease caused by Alternaria fungus on pummelos, have affected the quality of pummelos. Pesticides are overused and misused for the environment and human health. Therefore, there is an urgent need to reduce the use of synthetic chemicals. Biological control offers an alternative to the use of pesticides. Eight yeast strains have been isolated from healthy leaves, pummelo fruits, and healthy mulberries. They were screened for biological activity against Alternaria sp. by the dual culture method. The inhibitory potency ranged from 10.46% to 59.86%. The strain with the highest percentage (59.86%) was identified as Candida tropicalis using sequence analysis of the ITS region.

Keywords: Alternaria spp., biocontrol, candida tropicalis, Citrus maxima (Merr.)Burm, Antogonism

Article Details


Alavanja, M. C., & Bonner, M. R. (2012). Occupational pesticide exposures and cancer risk: a review. Journal of toxicology and environmental health. Part B, Critical reviews, 15(4), 238–263.

Bosqueiro, A. S., Junior, R. B., & Rosa-Magri, M. M. (2020). Potential of Trichosporon asahii against Alternaria sp. and mechanisms of action. Summa Phytopathol., Summa Phytopathologica, 46(1), 20-25.

Bowman, S. M., & Free, S. J. (2006). The structure and synthesis of the fungal cell wall. Bioessays, 28(8), 799–808.

Cabral, L., Delgado, J., Patriarca, A. & Rodríguez A. (2019) Differential response to synthetic and natural antifungals by Alternaria tenuissima in wheat simulating media: Growth, mycotoxin production and expression of a gene related to cell wall integrity. International Journal of Food Microbiology, 292, 48-55.

Casida, J. E. (2012). The greening of pesticide-environment interactions: some personal observations. Environmental health perspectives, 120(4), 487–493.

Chitolina, G. M., Silva-Junior, G. J., Feichtenberger, E., Pereira R. G. & Amorim, L. (2019). First Report on Quinone Outside Inhibitor Resistance of Alternaria alternata Causing Alternaria Brown Spot in Tangerines in São Paulo, Brazil. Plant health progress, 20(2), 94.

Da Cunha, T., Ferraz, L. P., Wehr, P. P., & Kupper, K. C. (2018). Antifungal activity and action mechanisms of yeasts isolate from citrus against Penicillium italicum. J Food Microbiol, 276, 20-27.

Doan Van Thuoc, Dinh Thị Hong Characterization of al cohol producing yeast islated from fermented fruit juice of Sonneratia caseolaris. Journal of biology. 2015, 37(1), 69-75

Dukare, A. S., Paul, S., Nambi, V. E., Gupta, R. K., Singh, R., Sharma, K., & Vishwakarma, R. K. (2019). Exploitation of microbial antagonists for the control of postharvest diseases of fruits: a review. Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition, 59, 1498-1513.

Gai, Y., Ma, H., Chen, Y., Li, L., Cao, Y., Wang, M., Sun, X., Jiao, C., Riely B. K. & Li H. (2021) Chromosome-Scale Genome Sequence of Alternaria alternata Causing Alternaria Brown Spot of Citrus. MPMI, 34(7), 726–732.

Geiger, F., Bengtsson, J., Berendse, F., Weisser, W. W., Emmerson, M., Morales, M. B., et al. (2010). Persistent negative effects of pesticides on biodiversity and biological control potential on European farmland. Basic and Applied Ecology, 11, 97–105.

Han, J. H., Shim, H., Shin, J. H., & Kim, K. S. (2015). Antagonistic Activities of Bacillus spp. Strains Isolated from Tidal Flat Sediment Towards Anthracnose Pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum and C. gloeosporioides in South Korea. Plant Pathol J., 31(2), 165-175.

Janisiewicz, W. J., & Buyer, J. S. (2010). Culturable microflora associated with nectarine fruit and their potential for control of brown rot. Can J Microbiol, 56, 480–486.

Janisiewicz, W. J., Jurick, W. M., Vico, I., et al. (2013). Culturable bacteria from plum fruit and their potential for controlling brown rot after harvest. Postharvest Biol Technol, 76, 145–151.

Jordaan, M. S., Reinecke, S. A., & Reinecke, A. J. (2012). Acute and sublethal effects of sequential exposure to the pesticide azinphos-methyl on juvenile earthworms (Eisenia andrei). Ecotoxicology, 21(3), 649-61.

Konsue, W., Dethoup, T., & Limtong, S. (2020). Biological Control of Fruit Rot and Anthracnose of Postharvest Mango by Antagonistic Yeasts from Economic Crops Leaves. Microorganisms, 8(3), 317.

Kowalska, J.; Krzymi ´nska, J.; Tyburski, J. Yeasts as a Potential Biological Agent in Plant Disease Protection and Yield Improvement—A Short Review. Agriculture 2022, 12, 1404.

Kurtzman, C. P., & Fell, J. W. (1998). The Yeasts, a Taxonomic Study, 4th Edition, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 77-102

Luong Duc Pham (2006). Industrial yeast, Science and Technology Publishing House.

McGrath, M. J., & Andrews J. H. (2007) Role of Microbial Immigration in the Colonization of Apple Leaves by Aureobasidium pullulans. ASM Journals, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 73(4). 1277-1286.

Mernke, D., Dahm, S., Walker, A.S., Laleve, A., Fillinger. S, Leroch, M., et al. Two Promoter Rearrangements in a Drug Efflux Transporter Gene Are Responsible for the Appearance and Spread of Multidrug Resistance Phenotype MDR2 in Botrytis cinerea Isolates in French and German Vineyards. Phytopathology, 101 (10), 1176–1183.

Nunes, C.A., (2012). Biological control of postharvest diseases of fruit. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 133, 181-196.

Simmons, E. G. (2002). Alternaria themes and variations (287–304). Species on Caryophyllaceae. Mycotaxon, 82, 1–40.

Spadaro, D., Droby, S. (2016). Development of biocontrol products for postharvest diseases of fruit: the importance of elucidating the mechanisms of action of yeast antagonists. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 47, 39–49.

Timmer, L. W., Peever T. L., Solel, Z. & Akimitsu K. (2003) Review: Alternaria spp. diseases of citrus- Novel pathosystems. Phytopathologia Mediterranea,42, 99 -112.

Vu Cong Hau (1996), Growing fruit trees in Vietnam, Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi

Zhimo, Y. V., Saha J., Singh B. & Chakraborty I.. Role of antagonistic yeast Candida tropicalis YZ27 on postharvest life and quality of litchi cv. Bombai. Current Science, 114 (5), 1100-1105.

Woudenberg, J. H., Groenewald, J. Z., Binder, M., & Crous, P. W. (2013). Alternaria redefined. Studies in mycology, 75(1), 171–212.

Woudenberg, J. H., Seidl, M. F., Groenewald, J. Z., de Vries, M., Stielow,J. B., Thomma, B. P., & Crous, P. W. (2015). Alternaria section Alternaria: Species, formae speciales or pathotypes? Stud. Mycol. 82,1-21.

Zhao, Y., Guo L., Xia Y., Zhuang X., & Chu W. (2019). Isolation, Identification of Carotenoid- Producing Rhodotorula sp. from Marine Environment and Optimization for Carotenoid Production. Mar Drugs, 17(3): 161.

Zhang, D., Spadaro, D., Garibaldi, A., & Gullino, M. L. (2011). Potential biocontrol activity of a strain of Pichia guilliermondii against gray mold of apples and its possible modes of action. Biological control, 57(3), 193-201.

Most read articles by the same author(s)