Trong-Phuoc Huynh , Van-Dung Nguyen * , Vu-Linh Nguyen and Thi-Thuong Le

* Corresponding author (

Main Article Content


In this study, a large amount of fly ash (FA) and bottom ash (BA) from the Nghi Son coal-fired thermal power plant in Thanh Hoa, Vietnam is used in producing unfired solid bricks. FA was utilized to substitute up to 85% (by weight) of the cement amount, while BA was used as a fine aggregate. Test results showed that all bricks produced in this study had a unit weight of 1.51 – 1.68 T/m3 and were classified as Grade M3.5 to M15. As FA replacement level increased, the unit weight, compressive strength, and thermal conductivity of bricks reduced, meanwhile water absorption and water permeability increased. The quality and amount of FA used had a strong effect on the brick’s properties. When the amount of FA used was too much, a part of them did not participate in the chemical reaction but played a role as a fine aggregate.

Keywords: Bottom ash, fly ash, thermal power plant ashes, unfired solid brick

Article Details


Chindaprasirt, P., Jaturapitakkul, A., Chalee, W., & Rattanasak, U. (2008). Comparative study on the characteristics of fly ash and bottom ash geopolymers. Waste Management, 29(2), 539-543.

Cicek, T., & Tanriverdi, M. (2007). Lime based steam autoclaved fly ash bricks. Construction and Building Materials, 21(6), 1295-1300.

Fraay, A. L. A., Bijen, J. M., & Haan, Y. M. (1989). The reaction of fly ash in concrete: a critical examination. Cement and Concrete Research, 19(2), 235-246.

Freidin, C. (2017). Cementless pressed blocks from waste products of coal-firing power station. Construction and Building Materials, 21(1), 12-18.

Kim, K. H., Jeon, S. E., Kim, J. K., & Yang, S. (2003). An experimental study on thermal conductivity of concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 33, 363-371.

Kumar, S. (2002). A perspective study on fly ash–lime–gypsum bricks and hollow blocks for low cost housing development. Construction and Building Materials, 16(8), 519-525.

Kurama, H., & Kaya, M. (2008). Usage of coal combustion bottom ash in concrete mixture. Construction and Building Materials, 22(9), 1922-1928.

Luu, D. T., & Le, T. T. T. (2021). Experimental investigation on the unfired building bricks produced from bottom ash and fly ash of Nghi Son coal power plant. Hong Duc University Journal of Science, 56, 95-102 (in Vietnamese).

Ministry of Science and Technology (Vietnam). (2016). Concrete brick (TCVN 6477:2016).

Muthusamy, K., Rasid, M. H., Jokhio, G. A., Budiea, A. M. A., Hussin, M. W., & Mirza, J. (2020). Coal BA as sand replacement in concrete: A review. Construction and Building Materials, 236, 117507.

Naganathan, S. Mohamed, A. Y. O., & Mustapha, K. N. (2015). Performance of bricks made using fly ash and bottom ash. Construction and Building Materials, 96, 576-580.

Naganathan, S., Subramaniam, N., & Mustapha, K. N. (2012). Development of brick using thermal power plant bottom ash and fly ash. Asian Journal of Civil Engineering, 13(1), 275-287.

Ngo, S. H., Le, T. T. T., & Huynh, T. P. (2018). Effect of unground rice husk ash on properties of sodium hydroxide-activated-unfired building bricks. International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology, 9(9), 1582-1592.

Ngo, S. H., Le, T. T. T., & Huynh, T. P. (2020). Effects of NaOH concentrations on properties of the thermal power plant ashes-bricks by alkaline activation. Journal of Wuhan University of Technol-Materials Science Edition, 35, 131-139.

Rafieizonoor, M., Mirza, J., Salim, M. R., Hussin, M. W., & Khankhaje, E. (2016). Investigation of coal bottom ash and fly ash in concrete as replacement for sand and cement. Construction and Building Materials, 116, 15-24.

Shakir, A. A., Naganathan., S., & Mustapha, K. N. (2013). Properties of bricks made using fly ash, quarry dust and billet scale. Construction and Building Materials, 41, 131-138.

Singh, M., & Siddique, R. (2016). Effect of coal bottom ash as partial replacement of sand on workability and strength properties of concrete. Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 620-630.

Turgut, P. (2010). Masonry composite material made of limestone powder and fly ash. Powder Technology, 204(1), 42-47.

Uysal, H., Demirboğa, R., Şahin, R., & Gül, R. (2004). The effect of different cement dosages, slumps, and pumice aggregate ratios on thermal conductivity and density of concrete. Cement and Concrete Research, 34, 845-848.

Zhang, Z., Qian, J., You, C., & Hu, C. (2012). Use of circulating fluidized bed combustion fly ash and slag in autoclaved brick. Construction and Building Materials, 35, 109-116.