Cover & Content
Animal and Veterinary
Study on canine respiratory disease and evaluating the effect of treatment at the Animal Clinic, Can Tho University
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The research was carried out to investigate the clinical diagnosis in dogs with respiratory tract disease and evaluate the treatment effect in the Animal Clinic of Can Tho University. The determination of respiratory tract disease in dogs was performed by cross-sectional study in 736 dogs that reared in Cantho city. The results showed that 143 out of 736 (19.43%) dogs had signs of respiratory tract disease by the clinical diagnosis. In addition, the respiratory tract disease in dogs was age-, breeds- and rearing modality-; and gradually increased according to age of dogs (P0.05). The results indicated that dogs had the clinical diagnosis in the upper airways (79.72%) and lower airways (20.28%). Cough combined nasal discharge at the highest rate (18.18%), followed by cough combined nasal discharge and eye rheum (13.99%), increase of respiratory rhythm (13.29%), cough combined nasal discharge and increase of respiratory rhythm (10.49%), nasal discharge combined eye rheum (10.49%), cough combined nasal discharge and rales (9.79%), cough combined rales and depression (6.99%), dry cough (6.29%), cough combined increase of respiratory rhythm and depression (5.59%), nosebleed (2.80%) and nosebleed combined increase of respiratory rhythm (2.10%). The effectiveness of treatment using Marbofloxacin and Cefuroxime was similar; and the adjustment for base clinical signs of the respiratory tract disease was high or rich in both treatments with Marbofloxacin and Cefuroxime.
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The study was conducted from January 2016 to July 2016 at some pig farms in Can Tho City to study the effectiveness of activated charcoal and wood vinegar to protect diarrhea in piglets. Experimental study was set in 19 herds of suckling pig (217piglets) and 21 herds of post weaning pig (226 piglets) with activated charcoal: wood vinegar in 8g:2ml/1kg feed. The result showed that average ratio of diarrhea in suckling pigs (7.37%) were higher than that post weaning pigs (1.32%) in experimental group; but these rates were deep descended in comparison with control groups (27.94%) and (30.3%), respectively. Activated charcoal and wood vinegar in feed was effective to prevent diarrhea in suckling pigs and post weaning pigs in both rainy and sunny seasons as (2.77%), (4.54%) and (3.77%), 5.88% in comparison with control groups (36.36%), 16.67% and (54.54%), (25.45%), respectively. Complement feed with activated charcoal and wood vinegar in feed was not effect to gain weight of piglets at 60 days old (16.827kg) and in control group (15.327 kg) and to FCR 1.474 and 1.592, respectively; The experimental herds was not used antibiotic when piglet diarrhea and recovered themselves after 1 day and usefully increase farmers income (124%).
Antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli causing edema disease in post-weaning pigs in Vinh Long province
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The study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial resistance of Escherichia coli which causes edema disease in post weaning pigs in Vinh Long province. In a total of 769 piglets, the E. coli positive rate was 19.51% from 150/769 piglet diseases. There was 86/150 piglets died in high rate (57.33%). The result showed that the ratio of post weaning pigs at 1-2 weeks infection after weaned (66.95%) was higher than that at over 2 weeks (33.05%). The ratio of E. coli isolated from piglets at households (61.02%) was higher than the farms (38.98%). The most common symptoms were swollen eyelids (100%), followed by swollen head (83.90%), moved convulsions (82.20%). The lesions as fluid accumulate in abdominal capacity (97.67), mesenteries hemorrhage (96.51%) and small intestines hemorrhage (96.51%) were common. Positive rate of gene encoding virulent factor Stx2e in post weaning pigs was quite high (42.37%). E. coli strains were highly resistant to ampicillin (92%) and bactrim (77%), followed by streptomycin (68%), gentamycin (50%). The 117/118 strains were multi-resistant to 2-7 antibiotics with 66 different resistant phenotypes and diversified and complicated multi-resistant phenotype. E. coli was till sensitive to ceftazidime, cefuroxime, amikacin and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. This is the first study of the gene encoding virulent factor Stx2e causing edema disease in post weaning pigs in Vinh Long province.
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Herein the extraction method of fucoidan from Kappaphycus alvarezii algae is reported. The fresh algae was collected from Dam Mon area (Khanh Hoa province). It was dried to 9.8% moisture and seived to 1mm in homogeneous size. Ethanol 80% was used to exclude pigments and lipids. The conditions of solvent, temperature, time for fucoidan extraction was studied. Fucoidan from Kappaphycus alvarezii was extracted by HCl, solvent rate 1/40 (w/v), 800C during 3 hours at once. The content of fucoidan extract was 40.5µg/ml. The response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize 3 factors of mateial/solvent ratio, temperature and time for the extraction. The optimal results was HCl 1.39M at 85.10C in 3.64 hours, fucoidan content was 47.9 µg/ml. The FT-IR spectrum of fucoidan contain specific peaks of sulfate group in fucoidan in axial or equatorial position.
Quality changes and in vitro digestibility of bread substituted with tuber starches modified by citric acid and heat-moisture treatment
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Citric acid and heat-moisture treatment favors the escalation of resistant starch that is antagonistic to the small intestinal hydrolysis and plays an important role in reducing diabetes and giving positive effects on human health. The aim of this research was to examine the qualities (specific volume, textural properties, in vitro digestibility, and sensory profiles measured by descriptive analysis) of bread substituted with 20% of the mixture of citric acid and heat-moisture treated tuber starches (sweet potato, potato, and cassava) and vital gluten (9:1, w/w). An incorporation of 20% of modified starches and gluten into wheat flour for bread-making resulted in a substantial enhancement on resistant starch content and hardness and gumminess values, but a momentous fall on specific volume and sensorial profiles as well as overall acceptability of composite breads. Among three kinds of supplemented baking-products, breads complemented with 20% of modified cassava starch and gluten displayed intermediate resistant starch content (32.0%), and hardness value (14.94 N), but highest specific volume (3.34 cm3/g), and score of overall acceptability (around 4.10/5.00) as compared to other modified starches.
Chemical compositions, bioactive compounds, and physicochemical properties of different purple sweet potato flours
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The difference in growing conditions, cultivated techniques or genotypes resulted in various quality of purple sweet potatoes. The objective of this study was to determine chemical compositions, bioactive compounds (total anthocyanin content, total phenolic content and total flavonoid content) and physicochemical properties (swelling index, water solubility index, and pasting properties) of flours prepared from purple sweet potatoes grown at 5 villages in Dong Thap and Vinh Long provinces. In term of dry basis, the chemical compositions of different purple sweet potato flours consisted of 1.08-3.09% of protein, 0.17-0.41% of lipid, 2.49-2.78% of ash, and 93.94-95.92% of total carbohydrate. Purple sweet potato grown at Phu Long village (Chau Thanh district, Dong Thap province) had the highest total anthocyanin content (6.8 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside/100 g flour (dry basis, db)), total phenolic content (202.2 mg FAE/100 g flour (db)), total flavonoid content (85.6 mg RE/100 g flour (db)) and water solubility index (13.6%) as compared to other purple sweet potato flours. Nevertheless, the paste of purple sweet potato from Hoa Tan village (Chau Thanh district, Dong Thap province) had the highest swelling index (7.5 g water/g flour) and manifested the greatest resistance against retrogradation, gel consistency and hot paste stability among other flours. The results of this study provided the useful information about the quality of purple sweet potatoes grown at different locations.
Content and physicochemical properties of starches from different kinds of sweet potatoes grown in Dong Thap province
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Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.) is an important agricultural plant growing in Dong Thap province to obtain roots because of high starch yield. However, starch content and properties vary depending on genotype and growing conditions. The objectives of this study were to determine content and physicochemical characteristics (chemical compositions, swelling power, viscosity and solubility) of starches obtained from two sweet potato samples (white and yellow sweet potatoes) from three locations in Chau Thanh district, Dong Thap province. Based on dry matter basis, the starch content of sweet potatoes ranged from 49.8 to 66.8%, and the white sweet potato grown at Hoa Tan village had the highest starch content. Based on wet matter basis, the starch content of sweet potatoes ranged from 16.1 to 20.4%, and the yellow sweet potato at Hoa Tan village had the highest starch content. The protein, fat, ash and total carbohydrate contents ranged from 0.15 to 0.25%, 0.07 to 0.14%, 0.15 to 0.22%, and 99.47 to 99.57%, respectively. The yellow sweet potato grown at Tan Phu village had highest starch swelling power at 90oC (15.42 g water/ g starch), while the yellow sweet potato from Hoa Tan village had highest solubility at 90oC (9.56%). In addition, starch suspension of the white sweet potato from Tan Phu village signified highest final viscosity and setback (626 and 390 BU, respectively), resulted in greatest resistance against retrogradation. The results of this study would provide useful information to select a high starch-content sweet potato practically grown in Dong Thap province for starch production.
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Lean production is a popular technology which is applied widely and brings a lot of benefits. Many electronics companies in Vietnam apply this technique to eliminate wastes and enhance effectiveness. This paper is to present a study on the application of lean production on a Surface Mounting Technology (SMT) line. In this research, the SMT assembly line with a traditional batch production model would be transferred to lean production-oriented model. This work was begun from realizing the current state value stream mapping and then identifying wastes to establish an implemented plan. Reengineering of the SMT line focused on the aspects of reduction such as reducing wastes, standardizing works, and improving the layout. Some positive results were recorded such as increasing about 50% productivity per each shift, decreasing lead time from 6 days to 192.76 seconds; moreover, controlling the end-line quantities in a day was fixed. Furthermore, the application results are discussed especially.
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One of the major technical issues facing biodiesel is its susceptibility to oxidation which is due to its content of unsaturated fatty acid chains, especially those with bis–allylic methylene moieties. In addition to the presence of air, various other factors influence the oxidation process of biodiesel including presence of light, elevated temperature, as well as extraneous materials such as metals which may be even present in the container material. The overall goal of this work is to evaluate the oxidation stability of Jatropha biodiesel/diesel blends. To achieve this goal, an acid–catalyzed pretreatment followed by a standard transesterification procedure with methanol and potassium methoxide catalyst was untaken to produce Jatropha methyl ester (JME) from Jatropha curcas L. oil (JO) with high acid value of 16.25 mg KOH/g. Analysis of the physicochemical properties has shown JME demonstrated potential as a good candidate for feedstock in biodiesel production because the studied physicochemical properties of JME adequately satisfied the relevant standards for biodiesel quality, with the exception of the kinematic viscosity at 40oC. Also, gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS) analytical result showed that fatty acid composition of JO was quite similar to that of conventional oils. Especially, the evaluation of oxidation stability of Jatropha biodiesel/diesel blends was accomplished with respect to the change in the quality after oxidation by bubbling oxygen at elevated temperature as well as oxidation of blend fuels in contact with copper plate. The results demonstrated a strong correlation between biodiesel concentration and blend stability; i.e., the increase in biodiesel concentration results in the lower stability in both cases of the copper strip corrosion test and the accelerated oxidation.
An investigation into English preparatory programs for EMI learning in higher education institutes in Vietnam
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In the era of globalization, the development of English as a medium of instruction (EMI) is of great interest to language and language policy researchers. Therefore, one of the main goals of the National Foreign Language Project launched by the Vietnamese Ministry of Education (MOET) is to adopt EMI courses in all higher education institutes (HEIs) by 2020. However, in such a context that English is learnt as a foreign language in Vietnam, students' English proficiency is quite a great challenge for them to follow EMI programs. Indeed, VIetnam is ranked as a "low English proficiency" country (Eduaction First, 2013). This strongly challenges students' learning and the effectiveness of EMI training, which is in line with findings in previous studies (Vinke et al., 1998; Wilkinson, 2005; Kyeyune, 2010; Manh, 2012). This article; therefore, critically examines the expectations of HEIs in Vietnam towards EMI students' English proficiency and how they prepare these students with sufficient English for EMI learning. With a qualitative approach, this study employs document analysis method using purposive sampling to collect data. The results show an inconsistency in the English entry each university requires and various practices of English preparatory programs for EMI learning. Based on the findings, recommendations are made to promote the effectiveness of the implementation and practices of EMI programs in Vietnam and in similar contexts.
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Pangasius krempfi is an important catfish species for capture fisheries in the Mekong River basin. Overexploitation could lead to decreasing genetic diversity of this species. This study was aimed to quantify genetic diversity and structure of P. krempfi in the lower Mekong River using ISSR markers. Samples were collected from two estuaries of Tien (at Binh Dai, Ben Tre, BT) and Hau Rivers (at Cu Lao Dung, Soc Trang, ST). Twenty individuals per location (or group) were analyzed with six ISSR primers, generated a total of 32 bands with the size ranging from 500 – 2200 bp. The two fish groups had similarly moderate levels of genetic diversity. As the whole population, genetic parameters were (mean ± SE) 56.3 ± 3.1% of polymorphic loci, 1.365 ± 0.048 effective number of alleles, 0.215 ± 0.027 expected heterozygosity, and 0.310 ± 0.037 Shannon index. Genetic distance based on Nei’s method between the two groups was 3.4%, accounting for 12% of total genetic variation. Principal coordinate and molecular genetic variance (AMOVA) analyses indicated that the two fish groups were genetically clustered at a low level, suggesting that they can be originated from different spawning groups of the same population.
Growth and survival rate of mud clam larvae (Geloina sp.) in relation to rearing densities and diets
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Different stocking density and feed types were evaluated in rearing larvae of mud clam Geloina coaxans. The experiment 1 included four food treatments as (i) 100% fresh algae (Nannochloropsis sp and Chaetoceros sp with 1:1 ratio), (ii) 100% dry algae (Spirulina powder), (iii) 75% fresh algae + 25% dry algae, (iv) 50% fresh algae +50% dry algae. Clam larvae were cultured in 5L bottles at the stocking density of 2000 larvae/L. Experiment period was lasted from D-larvae to 12th–15th corresponding from planktonic to the benthic stages. Experiment 2 included three treatments with different nursing densities of clam larvae from (i) 2000 larvae/L, (ii) 4000 larvae/L to (iii) 8000 larvae/L. Feed type with the best result from experiment 1 was applied for feeding in experiment 2. Results from experiment 1 showed that in treatment feeding 100% fresh algae, the length and width of larvae reached highest with 217.3µm and 230.0 µm on day 17, respectively. In addition, metamorphosis rate (31.2%), survival rate (10.5%) and larvae production (300 ind./L) also reached higher values than in other treatment (p
Comparative analysis of the bioactive compound, pigment content and antioxidant activity in different parts of Pouzolzia zeylanica plant
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Plants are a rich source of therapeutically active compounds such as antioxidants, antibiotics, pigments, vitamins, organic acids, glycosides, and other substances of particular importance to human life. The present study was to analyze and compare the content of bioactive compounds (anthocyanin, flavonoid, polyphenol and tannin); pigments (chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, total chlorophyll and carotenoids); and antioxidant activity in different parts of Pouzolzia zeylanica plant. The antioxidant activities were evaluated using three methods such as antioxidant ability index (AAI), ferrous reducing ability power (FRAP) and scavenging capacity 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. The results showed that the content of anthocyanin, flavonoid, polyphenol and tannin of young shoots was significantly (PPouzolzia zeylanica plant.
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Lipids play important roles for the cell in storing energy, structuring cell membrane and signaling pathway. In numerous distinctive studies, the analysis of lipids is to examine for distinct purposes. In the current research, a reliable, rapid, and economical assay has been developed to quantify the total of lipid in samples. The development of colorimetric sulfo-phospho-vanillin is for high throughput analysis of total lipids. In this method, a reaction mixture is performed in a 96-well microplate. The advantages provided from this new assay over other lipid measurement methods, including only small amount of sample requirement for fitting in the standard range, less time requirement and labor in analysing a large number of sample, and the more consistent of color development between lipid content and reagent concentration.
Social Sciences and Humanities
Transformative learning in resilient VACB model adapting to climate change in Phong Dien district, Can Tho city
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This study has assessed transformative learning in the VACB livelihood model of Phong Dien district, Can Tho city to propose solutions for maintaining and promoting transformative learning sustainably. To achieve the above purposes, mixed method was used including surveys, interviews, focus group discussions and expert observation and discussion as main data collection. The study has obtained some following results. Firstly, the local livelihood in Phong Dien has had changed dramatically. Secondly, there were seven different types in transformative learning in this area consisting of self-learning, and learning through workshop, training, model-observation, community activities, media tools and picking up. Thirdly, transformative learning process in Phong Dien has faced a number of difficulties related to residents’ aptitude and awareness, local government support, lack of information and learning space. Finally, based on above difficulties and practical observation on the research issues, a number of solutions were proposed to promote transformative learning in Phong Dien including promoting representative farmers’ roles, taking advantages of meeting, observing the information from television, internet and social network.