Le Ngoc Son and Duong Thuy Yen *

* Correspondence: Duong Thuy Yen (email: thuyyen@ctu.edu.vn)

Main Article Content


Understanding inter-population variation and sexual differences in morphology is a fundamental part of taxonomic and biological research. External morphology of swamp barb (Puntius brevis) was compared between sexes and among three populations in the Mekong Delta, including O Mon-Can Tho (n=86), U Minh Thuong-Kien Giang (n=49) and U Minh Ha-Ca Mau (n=77). The results illustrate that color and countable parameters are similar in all populations. Nonetheless, 9 out of 20 morphometric indices are significantly different among three populations (P<0.05), where 6 indices are more important criteria to distinguish among swamp barb populations. Furthermore, the sexual dimorphism of this species is indicated in 16/20 morphometric indices consisting of 5 indices relating egg-carrying characteristics. In particular, the females have higher values of indices relating to abdomen and head parts while most of fin length indices are larger in males than in females. In sum, intraspecific variation in morphometrics of swamp barb is mainly due to sexual dimorphism rather than populations.

Keywords: Morphology, inter-population variation, Puntius brevis, sex dimorphism, swamp barb

Article Details


Agrawal, A. A. (2001). Ecology: Phenotypic plasticity in the interactions and evolution of species. Science, 294(5541), 321–326. https://doi.org/10.1126/science.1060701

Albert, A. Y. K., Sawaya, S., Vines, T. H., Knecht, A. K., Miller, C. T., Summers, B. R., Balabhadra, S., Kingsley, D. M., & Schluter, D. (2008). The genetics of adaptive shape shift in stickleback: Pleiotropy and effect size. Evolution, 62(1), 76–85. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1558-5646.2007.00259.x

Beldade, P., Mateus, A. R. A., & Keller, R. A. (2011). Evolution and molecular mechanisms of adaptive developmental plasticity. Molecular Ecology, 20(7), 1347–1363. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-294X.2011.05016.x

Eakin, R. R., Eastman, J. T., & Vacchi, M. (2006). Sexual dimorphism and mental barbel structure in the South Georgia plunderfish Artedidraco mirus (Perciformes: Notothenioidei: Artedidraconidae). Polar Biology, 30(1), 45–52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00300-006-0158-x

Elliott, N. G., Haskard, K., & Koslow, J. A. (1995). Morphometric analysis of orange roughy (Hoplostethus atalanticus) off the continental slope of southern Australia. Journal of Fish Biology, 46(2), 202–220. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1095-8649.1995.tb05962.x

Froese, R., & Pauly, D. (2020). Fishbase. http://www.fishbase.org

Gunawickrama, K. S. (2008). Intraspecific Variation in Morphology and Sexual Dimorphism in Puntius singhala (Teleostei: Cyprinidae). Ceylon Journal of Science (Biological Sciences), 37(2), 167–175. https://doi.org/10.4038/cjsbs.v37i2.504

Kelly, C. D., Folinsbee, K. E., Adams, D. C., & Jennions, M. D. (2013). Intraspecific Sexual Size and Shape Dimorphism in an Australian Freshwater Fish Differs with Respect to a Biogeographic Barrier and Latitude. Evolutionary Biology, 40(3), 408–419. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11692-013-9224-9

Kim, Y., Zhang, C., Park, I. S., Na, J., & Olin, P. (2008). Sexual dimorphism in morphometric characteristics of Korean chub Zacco koreanus (Pisces, Cyprinidae). Journal of Ecology and Field Biology, 31(2), 107–113. https://doi.org/10.5141/jefb.2008.31.2.107

Kitano, J., Mori, S., & Peichel, C. L. (2007). Sexual Dimorphism in the External Morphology of the Threespine Stickleback (Gasterosteus Aculeatus). Copeia, 2007(2), 336–349. https://doi.org/10.1643/0045-8511(2007)7[336:sditem]2.0.co;2

Kottelat, M. (2001). Fishes of Laos. WHT Publications, Colombo.

Lumbantobing, D. N. (2010). Four new species of the Rasbora trifasciata-Group (Teleostei: Cyprinidae) from northwestern Sumatra, Indonesia. Copeia, 2010(4), 644–670. https://doi.org/10.1643/CI-09-155

Neat, F. C., Lengkeek, W., Westerbeek, E. P., Laarhoven, B., & Videler, J. J. (2003). Behavioural and morphological differences between lake and river populations of Salaria fluviatilis. Journal of Fish Biology, 63(2), 374–387. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1095-8649.2003.00159.x

Ngo To Linh & Nguyen Van Cong. (2009). Effects of insecticide diazinon on activity of enzyme cholinesterase in Climbing perch (Anabas testudineus): Effects of temperature and dissolved oxygen. Can Tho University Journal of Science, 11, 33–40 (in Vietnamese).

Nguyen Thi Ngoc Tran & Duong Thuy Yen. (2020). Comparing morphological characteristics of striped dwarf catfish (Mystus mysticetus) distributed in U Minh Thuong with other populations in the Mekong Delta. Can Tho University Journal of Science, 56, 192–199. https://doi.org/10.22144/ctu.jsi.2020.022 (in Vietnamese).

Petar, Ž., Dušan, J., Mišel, J., & Ivana, B. (2014). A contribution to understanding the ecology of the large spot barbel - sexual dimorphism , growth and population structure of Barbus balcanicus ( Actinopterygii ; Cyprinidae ) in Central Croatia. North-Western Journal Of Zoology, 10(1), 158–166.

Pham Van Toan. (2013). The situation of pesticide use and several of reduced measures for improper pesticide use in rice production in the Mekong Delta. Can Tho University Journal of Science, 28(A), 47–53 (in Vietnamese).

Rainboth, W. J. (1996). Fishes Of The Cambodian Mekong. FAO, Rome.

Saillant, E., Fostier, A., Menu, B., & Haffray, P. (2001). Sexual growth dimorphism in sea bass Dicentrarchus labrax. Aquaculture, 202, 371–387.

Schneider, C. A., Rasband, W. S., & Eliceiri, K. W. (2012). NIH Image to ImageJ: 25 years of image analysis. Nature Methods, 9(7), 671–675. https://doi.org/10.1038/nmeth.2089

Spoljaric, M. A., & Reimchen, T. E. (2008). Habitat-dependent reduction of sexual dimorphism in geometric body shape of Haida Gwaii threespine stickleback. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 95, 505–516.

Svanbäck, R., & Eklöv, P. (2002). Effects of habitat and food resources on morphology and ontogenetic growth trajectories in perch. Oecologia, 131(1), 61–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00442-001-0861-9

Székely, T., Freckleton, R. P., & Reynolds, J. D. (2004). Sexual selection explains Rensch’s rule of size dimorphism in shorebirds. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 101(33), 12224–12227. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0404503101

Tran, D. D., Shibukawa, K., Nguyen, T. P., Ha, P. H., Tran, X. L., Mai, V. H., & Utsugi, K. (2013). Fishes of the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Can Tho University Publishing House, Can Tho.

Truong Thu Khoa & Tran Thi Thu Huong. (1993). Classification of freshwater fish in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam. Can Tho University (in Vietnamese).

Ukenye, E. A., Taiwo, I. A., & Anyanwu, P. E. (2019). Morphological and genetic variation in Tilapia guineensis in West African coastal waters : A mini review. Biotechnology Reports, 24, e00362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.btre.2019.e00362

Vidthayanon, C. (2002). Peat swamp fishes of Thailand. Office of Environmental Policy and Planning, Bangkok, Thailand.

Vietnam Forestry. (2019). Knowlegde about U Minh Ha and U Minh Thuong Forest. http://vietnamforestry.org.vn (in Vietnamese).

West-Eberhard, M. J. (2003). Developmental Plasticity And Evolution. Oxford University Press.