Published: 2019-03-30

Antifeedant activity of essential oil Lantana camara L. against Spodoptera litura Fabr. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Plutella xylostella Curtis (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

Nguyen Ngoc Bao Chau, Nguyen Bao Quoc, Dong Thi Cam Tu
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The main volatile components of leaf extracts from Lantana camara by GC-MS were identified as  β–Caryophylene (29.67%), Caryophylene oxide (2.69%),α–Humulene (10.24%)and   Germacrene D (1.72%). The antifeedant activity of Lantana camera essential oil was tested against Spodoptera litura and Plutella xylostella at different concentrations. Results indicated that 50%-60% antifeedant activity induced by the oil was recorded on Spodoptera litura and Plutella xylostella second instar larvae and gave significant difference compared to the control (P=0.0000) in no-choice test and choice-test experiments, respectively; the essential oil of Lantana camera affected the ratio of pupation and adult emergence of both S. litura and P. xylostella.

Longan and rambutan in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam: A review of technologies to improve flowering and fruit setting

Tran Van Hau, Tran Sy Hieu
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This review was aimed to focus on the management techniques relating to flowering and fruit set phenology of longan, and rambutan. For longan, there have been three common cultivars grown in the Mekong delta (MD), viz. ‘Tieu Da Bo’, ’Xuong Com Vang’ and ‘E-Daw’ (originated from Thailand). Their characteristics of flowering and fruit development are relatively different. The crop season of ‘Tieu Da Bo’ cultivar occurs within only 7.5-8.0 months, since the trees only need two leaf flushes before being able to be induced for flowering. As for the ‘Xuong Com Vang’ cultivar, three leaf flushes should be completed prior to the floral induction. Fruit development of ‘E-Daw’ cultivar is relatively long, within 4.0-4.5 month. Therefore, the crop season of ‘Xuong Com Vang’ and ‘E-Daw’ usually extends to almost 12 months. The most common flowering induction technique applied on longan is collar drenching of KClO3 alone (‘E-Daw’) or in combination with branch cincturing (‘Tieu Da Bo’ and ‘Xuong Com Vang’). KClO3 doses and time of application vary depending on the cultivar treated and crop season. For rambutan, the three popular cultivars grown in the MD include ‘Rongrien’ (originated from Thailand), ‘Nhan’, and ‘Java’. The latter is recently the most popular cultivar; and its crop season duration is averagely 9.5-10 months. The duration from fruit set to harvest is 14-16 weeks. Off-season floral induction on rambutan is implemented via the drainage of irrigation ditch combined with plastic mulching covering the growing bed. Another method is to spray Paclobutrazol onto the canopy when color of the third leaf flush is light green (50-60 day-old). To improve fruit set, foliar application of NAA is recommended. The chemical, 30 ppm, can ben spray to a few inflorescences possessing about 30% of blooming flower. In addition, immature fruit drop can also be reduced by the foliar application of 20 – 40 ppm when fruit sized is 4-5 cm ca

Comparision of genetic variation between avian influenza type A H5N1 virus causing disease and circulating on poultry in some provinces in the Mekong Delta in 2016

Tien Ngoc Tien, Ly Thi Lien Khai
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The aim of this study was determine the genetic variation of type A H5N1 avian influenza virus in some Mekong Delta provinces in 2016.

Escherichia coli infection in ducks in the Mekong Delta: Bacterial isolation, serogroup distribution and antibiotic resistance

Ho Thi Viet Thu, Doan Tran Loan Anh, Le Van Dong
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An investigation on duck Escherichia coli infection was carried out by examination of 241 suspicious colibacillosis outbreaks from 5 city and provinces in the Mekong delta. The study procedure involves several steps,including bacterial isolation and identification, O sero-group typing and antibiotic resistant determination. The results showed that 990 from 994 ducks were confirmed to be infected by E. coli. E. coli bacteria were found from feces in almost diseased ducks (99.0%) and many organ samples, the highest rate of positive isolates was reported from livers (78.3%), followed by lungs (71.8%), spleens (67.4%), and the lowest one was in bone marrows (58.9%). The typing of 300 E. coli isolates with 10 important groups of mono O antisera revealed that 265 isolates were identified and belonged to 10 O sero-groups. The most commonly isolated O group was O2 (16.7%), followed by O78 (15.0%), O81 (9.7%), O35 (9.3%), O1 (8.0%), O36 (7.0%), O111 (7.7%), O92 (5.7%), O18 (5.3%) and the lowest one was O93 (4.0%).  A total of 659 E. coli isolates were tested for their sensitivity to commonly used antibiotics, these APEC isolates demonstrated moderate to high resistances (20.2 % to 67.4 %) to 7/15 antibiotics  tested, and very little amikacin and fosfomycin resistances (3.0 and 6.4%). It is imperative that susceptibility tests should be carried out on infecting pathogen prior to treatment of ducks colibacillosis in field in order to avoid treatment failure and reduce selective pressure that could result in spreading avian pathogenic E. coli in the environment.Keywords: antibiotic, duck, E. coli, resistance, sero-group

Recent production status, research results and development conditions of rabbit production in Vietnam - A review

Nguyen Van Thu
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Rabbit production is well developed in different regions of Vietnam due to abundant feed resources, suitable climate and good raising experiences with the total rabbit population of 5,844,000 in 2014. There are many production models created by producers, which show the technical and economic effectiveness for production contributing to the poor alleviation and prosperous income. Rabbit meat consumption is also increased in the cities and rural areas from year to year. In this paper the current situation development, research results on breeds, nutrition, feed resources, rabbit performance of meat and reproduction, markets and development strategies are presented. The constraints of production development such as low breed quality, few intensive large farms, limited necessary studies, poor marketing and less international co-operation are also discussed.herbivores, breeding, keeping, production improvement, benefits. 

The preparation of Ca2+–selective electrodes

Nguyen Van Dat, Huynh Thanh Tuan, Ronny Purwadi
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Ion selective electrode (ISE) is a useful tool in the direct determination of ionic species in complex samples. This study relates to the manufacture of Ca2+– selective electrode with single – barrelled microelectrodes and an internal filling solution buffered for pCa (pCa= –lg[Ca2+]) of 6. It is shown that an improved lower detection limit of 10–6 M is obtained in Ca2+ buffer solution and the changes in EMF (Electromotive force) between two solutions of 10 – fold change in Ca2+ concentration are close to 30 mV/decade.

Comparative study of preparation and characterization of palladium nanosheets

Tran Thi Bich Quyen, Luong Huynh Vu Thanh, Doan Van Hong Thien, Nguyen Thi Xuan Chi, Nguyen Thi Diem Nhi, Bui Le Anh Tuan
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A simple and effective approach has been developed to synthesize palladium nanosheets that were successfully employed by reducing the Pd salt precursor in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF), cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB), citric acid and using variuos reducing agents of CO gas and tungsten hexacarbonyl (W(CO)6). It indicates to be novel method for the synthesis providing a cost effective and an efficient route for the Pd nanosheets’ synthesis. The prepared Pd nansheets have been characterized by UV-vis, TEM and XRD. Result showed those Pd nanosheets have been obtained with the average edge length of ~20-25 nm (using CO gas) and around ~20 nm (using W(CO)6). Thus, the method using W(CO)6 as a reducing agent could be a competitive alternative to the approach used CO gas for the synthesis of Pd nanosheets. Since, it has a potential to use for applications in photothermal therapy, biosensor, catalyst,… with highly plasmonic and catalytic properties in the current and in future. 

A review of factors influencing learners’ gain of English proficiency

Phuong Hoang Yen, Vo Phuong Quyen, Tran Mai Hien
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Different factors are involved in the process of learners learning English as a second or foreign language. Some contribute to enhancing their English proficiency, others mitigate and or even delay the process of learners’ mastering the language. Throughout literature, many studies focus on one or several factors that have an impact on learners’ gain of English language proficiency. Few studies have been conducted to explore groups of factors together. The current paper reviews different studies on the issue to provide the whole picture of what may play a role in influencing English-as-a-foreign-language learners’ improvement of English proficiency. Three groups of factors are discussed including student-related factors, teacher-related factors and context-related factors. The paper also implies what different stakeholders can do to maximize and optimize learners’ gain and progress in English language learning.

Towards a new open educational resource model using OKMindmap

Bui Le Diem, Bui Le Diem Trang, Won Ho, Yong-Gi Kim
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Mindmap is a useful teaching and learning tool. They could enable the skills of communication, collaboration, critical thinking and creativity which are identified as super skills being required for success in the 21st century. This paper suggests using OKMindmap to create a new open educational resource (OER) model called Big Book as an innovative educational method. The book was intended as an online collaborative learning environment where multiple sources of information such as video clips, images, sounds, texts and hyperlinks could be added as nodes of OKMindmap. It was trialled with the tenth graders at High school Teacher Practice of Can Tho University for one year. The results of the trial were positive. The students were interested in this new mode of learning since they could create their own Big Book by gathering information available on the web or design their own study plan which can be easily shared. The findings point to the feasibility of creating a Big Book for Vietnamese learners as the design of the Big Book was made easier and more affordable than ever in the age of technology.

Variation in morphometric characteristics between cultured and wild striped snakehead (Channa striata) populations in the Mekong Delta

Duong Thuy Yen, Vo Ngoc Duyen, Robert Pomeroy, Tran Thi Thanh Hien, Egna Hillary
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Fish in captive conditions can change their morphology differently from their origin in the wild. Thus, morphological characteristics are commonly used for population identification. In this study, morphometric differences among six cultured and wild populations of striped snakehead (Channa striata) in the Mekong Delta were evaluated. Cultured fish were collected from three hatcheries in Hau Giang, An Giang, and Dong Thap provinces, where snakehead farming is commonly practiced. Wild fish were sampled nearby three conservation areas in Long An, Ca Mau, and Hau Giang provinces. Twenty-two morphometric measurements were converted into ratios to standard length or head length (indices) or adjusted for body size effects by using Elliot et al. (1995) approach. Univariate analyses showed that morphometric characteristics of snakehead were significantly different among six populations (P

Evaluating the effects of single cell detritus from red seaweed (Gracillaria tenuistipitata) and gutweed (Enteromorpha sp.) on growth of Artemia franciscana

Ngo Thi Thu Thao
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The ability to produce single cell detritus (SCD) from different seaweed species, red seaweed, Gracillaria tenuistipitata and green seaweed, Enteromorpha sp. was determined and assessed the effects of selected SCD diet on survival rate, growth performance and reproductive characteristics of Artemia franciscana under laboratory conditions. Experiment 1 included 8 treatments with red and green seaweeds, combined with yeast fermentation at different densities (0, 104, 105, 106 cells/mL). The results showed that, the density of SCD reached highest at day 7 in the treatments added 106 yeast cells/mL (88.480±2.769×106 and 100.752±2.687×106cells/mL of red and green seaweeds, respectively). Although the density of SCD was highest at 106 yeast cells/mL, the yeast density and NH4+ concentration in green seaweed fermentation were high (5-10 mg/L). Thus, the treatment of red seaweed and 105 yeast cells/mL obtained the suitable ability to harvest and preserve SCD for feeding Artemia.  In experiment 2, Artemia were fed with 5 different diets with treplicates per each. Commercial feed No.0 (for nursing shrimp) was the control and 4 diets in which the shrimp food was replaced by SCD with proportion of 100, 75, 50 and 25%. Our findings showed that diet with 50% shrimp food and 50% SCD or 75% shrimp food and 25% SCD showed the high survival rate and good growth performance, as well as positive effects on the reproductive characteristics of Artemia franciscana.

Studies on betalains chemistry from the Vietnamese red dragon fruits (Hylocereus polyrhizus) by LC-ESI-MS/MS

Tran Thi Minh Thu, Do Vinh Quang
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The principle pigments from Vietnamese red dragon fruits (Hylocereus polyrhizus) were investigated qualitatively the first time by liquid chromatography connected to tandem mass spectrometry approach (LC-ESI-MS/MS). Both betacyanins and betaxanthins were detected from the crude and purified extracts based on the maximum UV absorbance of 540 nm and 480 nm, together with the daughter ions at m/z 389 and 265, respectively. The main betacyanins were identified as betanin/isobetanin ([M+H]+ at m/z 551), phyllocactin/isophyllocactin (6’-O-malonylbetanin, [M+H]+ at m/z 637) and apiosyl-betanin/apiosyl-isobetanin ([M+H]+ at m/z 683) next to the minor derivative of hylocerenin/isohylocerenin ([M+H]+ at m/z  695), 2’-apiosyl-phyllocactin/2’-apiosyl-isophyllocactin ([M+H]+ at m/z 769)  and traces of betanidin 5-O-β-sophoroside/isobetanidin 5-O-β-sophoroside ([M+H]+ at m/z 713). The primary yellow indicaxanthin was also recognized at m/z 309. These compounds appear in different ratios in comparison to other Hylocereus polyrhizus cultivar reported before. Their degradation products of decarboxylation and dehydrogenation namely decarboxy-betanin ([M+H]+ at m/z 507) and neobetanin ([M+H]+ at m/z 549) were also found in traces. These artifacts were not found in the fresh fruits and were suspected to be generated through harvesting and processing conditions of high temperature and sunlight.

A weak law of large numbers and Poisson approximation problem for extension random sums of m-dependent random variables

Le Truong Giang, Trinh Huu Nghiem
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In probability theory, Limit theorems are often considered for independent random variables. These results have been applied in many fields. However, there are several studied models presented that random variables depend on each other. The aim of current paper is to study an extension of random sums of m - dependent random variables. Weak law of large numbers and Poisson approximation problem for random sums are established. The received results are extensions and generalizations of some known results.

Law of large number for one dimensional Markov process

Lam Hoang Chuong, Le Thi My Xuan, Le Nguyen Thuy Van, Nguyen Thi Thu Ha
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The aim of this paper is to study the model of Markov process with the state space ℤ. We apply the method similar to Depauw et al. (2009) and Lam (2014) to prove that this stochastic process converges in probability to a constant (Theorem 1.1) and to give its rate also (Theorem 3.1). Precisely, let L be the corresponding operator of the previous stochastic process and f be a given function, we solve the equation and then treat the limit of its solutions, the rate of the convergence is instantly given by the convergence of the moment of Markov process.

An evaluation female human resource in public administration with study case in the Mekong Delta

Nguyen Khanh Linh
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Mekong Delta is one of Vietnam’s extensive areas. This region has the youngest developmental history when compared with other areas in Vietnam. Accounting for nearly 50% of the social workforce in the Mekong Delta, women have remarkable contributions to family, community, and social development. In the field of politics, female cadres actively learn to improve their political, professional, and moral qualities. In addition, women actively participate in building a powerful government, so a small percentage of women are trained, planned, promoted and appointed to many key positions in the local areas. However, women in the political system still confront many disadvantages in both quality and quantity when men are still dominant. This paper not only reveals female official’s limitations in qualifications and specialist skills but also reflects gender inequality in decision-making positions. Keywords: Mekong Delta, leadership, public administration, women. 

Barriers to women’ s participation in the Sustainable Rice Platform training course in Ke Sach district, Soc Trang province

Huynh Quang Tin, Nguyen Huu Loi, Nguyen Hoang Khai
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The study aims to investigate the barriers which limit the active participation of women in the agricultural training programme in Ke Sach district, Soc Trang province. Personal interviews were conducted with the male head as well as spouses of each selected farm family that take part in SRP training course. The total sample size of the study was 150 (75 male and 75 female respondents). A designed structured questionnaire was prepared for the data collection as the research instrument with the Likert three-point and Likert five-point. The data thus collected were coded on SPSS for analysis and interpretation. Results of the study showed that there was a significant difference in age and educational status of male heads and their spouses. All of the farmer households agriculture is the primary income sources for their livelihoods from farming sources. The intensity of participation of male respondents in different crops and livestock activities was comparatively high as compared to their female counterparts. In spite of their participation in crops and livestock activities showed that compared to female respondents, male-headed households had access to agricultural extension services as well as SRP training course than their wives. Especially, there were top four-factor affects women’s decision participating which is most of the time for home-making, less exposed to social, lack of production experience, and depending on the decision of the husband.