Nguyen Thi Nhu Y , Nguyen Thi Yen Nhi , Tran Thi Minh Thu , Nguyen Thi Ven , Tran Nguyen Phuong Lan and Luong Huynh Vu Thanh *

* Correspondence: Luong Huynh Vu Thanh (email:

Main Article Content


This study is to investigate the capability of producing lignin-based phenol-formaldehyde adhesive (LBPFA) with lignin derived from coir pith collected in the Mekong Delta, Viet Nam. The LBPFA synthetic process underwent non chemical modifications to minimize petrochemicals and energy. Effective factors as reaction time, reaction temperature and various lignin contents of phenol substitution were examined. Physical, chemical and thermal properties containing formaldehyde content, viscosity, solid content, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), tensile strength, tensile modulus and tensile strain were conducted. LBPFA was successfully synthesized at various levels of lignin contents substituting for phenol. The LBPFA’s parameters were in accordance with GB/T14372-2006 standard. The optimum reaction time, reaction temperature and lignin replacement content for LBPFA synthesis process were identified at 180 minutes, 900C and 40% wt/wt, respectively. The LBPFA showed the highest dry and wet tensile strengths of 14.42 MPa and 7.66 MPa on wooden boards compared to corresponding figures of commercial resin with 2.98 MPa and 0 MPa, respectively. For plywood, bending strength shown in LBPFA and commercial adhesive were 15.97 MPa and 20.16 MPa, respectively.

Keywords: Based-lignin adhesive, Coir pith, Lignin Phenol Formaldehyde Adhesive, Phenolic Resin

Article Details


Cetin, N. S., & Ozmen, N. (2003). Studies on lignin-based adhesives for particleboard panels. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, 27(3), 183-189.

Derek, S. (2008). Lignin as a base material for materials applications: Chemistry, application and econimics. Industrial Crops and Products, 27(2), 202-207.

Duval, A., & Lawoko, M. (2014). A review on lignin-based polymeric, micro and nano-structured materials, Reactive and Functional Polymers, 85, 78-96.

Hemmila, V., Trischler, J., & Sandberg, D. (2013, September 11-12). Lignin - an adhesive raw material of the future or waste of research energy [Conference presentation]. Nineth Meeting of the Northern European Network for Wood Science and Engineering (WSE), Hannover, Germany.

Ibrahim, M. N. M., Zakaria, N., Sipaut, C. S., Sulaiman, O., & Hashim, R. (2011). Chemical and thermal properties of lignins from oil palm biomass as a substitute for phenol in a phenol formaldehyde resin production. Carbohydrate Polymers, 86(1), 112-119.

Kalami, S., Arefmanesh, M., Master, E., & Nejad, M. (2017). Replacing 100% of phenol in phenolic adhesive formulations with lignin. Journal of applied polymer science, 134(30), 1-9.

Liitia, T. (2014). Pro Lignin - High-Value Products from Lignin Side-Streams of Modern Biorefineries [Conference presentation]. Sixth Wood Wisdom-Net Research Programme Seminar, Hanover, Germany.

Luong, H. V. T., Nguyen, T. N. Y., Truong., H. T., Nguyen, T. V., & Nguyen, H. T. (2017). Lignin derived from coir pith: Extraction process and characterization. Vietnam Journal of Chemistry, 55(5E34), 531-536.

Mainka, H., Tager, O., Korner, E,. Hilfert, L., Busse, S., Edelmann, F. T., & Herrmann A. S. (2015). Lignin - an alternative precusor for sustainable and cost-effective automotive carbon fiber, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 4(3), 283-296.

Mansori, N. E. E., & Salvado, J. (2006). Structural characterixzation of technical lignins for the production of adhesives: Application to lignosulfonate, kraft, soda-anthraquinone, organosolv and ethanol process lignins, Industrial Crops and Products, 24(1), 8-16.

Nguyen, T. N. Y., Nguyen, T. V., & Luong, H. V. T., (2018). Fabrication of coir pith lignin-based fibers using electrospining method. International Journal of Scientific Engineering and Science, 2(1), 2456-7361.

Norgren, M., & Edlund, H. (2014). Lignin: recent advances and emerging applications, Current opinion in colloid & interface science, 19(5), 409-416.

Ozmen, N. (2000). Lignin Based Adhesives for Particleboard Production (doctoral dissertation), Bangor University.

Pfungen, L. (2015). Lignin Phenol Formaldehyde Wood Adhesives (master’s thesis). University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna.

Tejado, A., Pena, C., Labidi, J., Echeverria, J. M., & Mondragon, I. (2007). Physico-chemical characterization of lignins from different sources for use in phenol–formaldehyde resin synthesis. Bioresources Technology, 98(8), 1655-1663.

Wang, M., Leitch, M., & Xu, C. (2009). Synthesis of phenol–formaldehyde resol resins using organosolv pine lignins. European Polymer Journal, 45(12), 3380-3388.

Yang, S., Zhang, Y., Yuan, T. Q., & Sun, R. C. (2015). Lignin–phenol–formaldehyde resin adhesives prepared with biorefinery technical lignins. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 132(36), 1-9.

Zakaria, N. B. (2015). Formulation and characterization of lignin-phenol-formaldehyde resins for plywood (master’s thesis), University Sains Malaysia.

Most read articles by the same author(s)