Published: 2018-11-03

Effectiveness of green muscardine fungus Metarhizium anisopliae and some insecticides on lesser coconut weevil Diocalandra frumenti Fabricius (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

Nguyen Hong Ung, Trinh Thi Xuan, Le Van Vang, Duong Keu Hanh, Tran Van Hai
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This report aims to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment for lesser coconut weevil (Diocalandra frumenti) with green muscardine fungus (Metarhizium anisopliae) and some insecticides at laboratory and farmers’coconut orchard. The results showed that the isolates of Metarhizium anisopliae at the concentration of 108 spores.mL-1 killed adults under laboratory condition (T = 28-310C; RH = 60-70%). In the laboratory, the corrected effectiveness caused by Metarhizium anisopliae isolates of Ma5, Ma2 and Ma1 had preventive effects at 100%, 95.0% and 95.8% at 15 days after being treated. Both Emamectin benzoate and Fipronil can effectively control the beetles at 100% at 3 days after being treated. Among 4 tested concentrations, the effectiveness of M. anisopliae at 109  spores.mL-1 gave higher effectiveness up to 96.7% at 15 days after being treated. In farmers’coconut orchard, the results also showed  coconut fruits which were damaged by weevils clearly reduced from 35 days after being treated. At 65 days, all of treatments applied with M. anisopliae gave effective control just at 4.00% and 5.60% (ratios of infected fruits). Mainwhile, insecticide applied with treatments had a higher ratio of coconut fruits infected by this weevil (14.7% and 11.4%).

Effects of fertilizer doses on yield and quality of gandaria (Bouea oppositifolia (Roxb.) Meisne.) grown in Binh Minh town, Vinh Long province, Vietnam

Tran Van Hau, Tran Sy Hieu, Nguyen Thuy Thao Nguyen, Nguyen Le Khanh Linh
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ABSTRACTThis study, conducted from May 2016 to June 2017, was aimed to investigate the effect of different fertilizer doses on yield and quality of gandaria (Bouea  oppositifolia (Roxb.) Meisne). Experiments were arranged in randomized complete block design, in which the 5 investigated treatments corresponded to the five fertilizer doses, viz 1, 2, 3 and 4 kg/tree/year and no fertilization as the control. Fertilizers doses were obtained by mixing and adjusting the proportions of mono (Urea, KCl, Diammonium phosphate -DAP) and compound (20-20-15) fertilizer. Every treatment had 10 replications, each of which equalled to one tree. The fertilizer doses were divided into three times of application, i.e. post-harvesting (50% of the investigated doses, at the N-P2O5-K2O ratio of 4:3:2), 30 days after fruit set (AFS) (25% of the investigated doses, at the N-P2O5-K2O ratio of 1:1:1), and 60 days AFS (25% of the investigated doses, at the N-P2O5-K2O ratio of 2:2:3). Leaf and soil samples were collected for further analysis to determine the content of some nutrient elements before and after fertilizer applications. Results of the present study showed that fertilizer application at the dose of 3-4 kg/tree/year resulted in higher yield (2.3 times higher than that of the control treatment) which was due to the increase in number of inflorescence per shoot, number of fruit per bunch and fruit set ratio. The treatment also prolonged flowering duration (79.4 days) as compared to that of the control treatment (39.0 days). Fruit sweetness was also improved by the application of 3-4 kg of fertilizer per tree per year.

Effect of organic acid products on growth performance and intestine health of Tam Hoang chicken

Nguyen Thi Thuy, Nguyen Thi My Phung, Luu Thi Ty, Nguyen Thi Hoang Bich, Thai Viet An
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An experiment was conducted to determine the effects on growth performance and health status of Tam Hoang chickens (n=720) of adding to the diet two organic acid products (Menacid  and  Poulacid) given separately, or as a mixture. The experiment was conducted for 12 weeks with 6 treatments in a 6*2 factorial design and 3 replications. The first factor was organic acid supplement; the second factor was gender (male or female). The treatments were: Cont: Basal diet (BD) without any organic acid product; M0.8: BD with 0.8g Menacid/kg feed; M1.0: BD with 1.0gMenacid/kg feed; P1.0: BD with 1g Poulacid acid/kg feed; P1.5: BD with 1.5g poulacid/kg feed; MP: BD with 0.5g Menacid and 1g Poulacid acid/kg feed. Results showed that average daily gain (ADG) of chickens overall 1 to 12 weeks fed M0.8 and MP were better than the control, average feed intake (ADFI) did not differ among the treatments. Feed conversion (FCR) over the 12 week period was better for the M0.8 treatment compared with the control but the other treatments did not differ from the control. Lactobacilli and Salmonella.spp were not detected in chicken feces neither at 42 nor 70 days of age. Clostridium perfringens and E. coli were reduced in all suplemented treatments, so morbidity (13-19%) and mortality (10-15%) were high. It is concluded that there was an apparent improvement in growth rate (8%), linked with a reduction in pathogenic bacteria (E.coli and Clostridium perfringens) in the feces when chickens were supplemented with a commercial source of organic acids.Key words: Clostridium perfringens, E.coli, Lactobacillus, organic acid,  Salmonella.spp, Tam Hoang

A literature review on organizational culture and organizational effectiveness

La Hong Lien, Luu Tien Thuan
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The objectives of this paper are to review measures of organizational culture and organizational effectiveness, as well as relationship between them. Firstly, a structured review of a number of organizational culture studies that has accumulated in the past two decades is conducted. Secondly, contents of the studies are analyzed to identify commonalities and gaps, in order to suggest directions for further research. The contents of 69 articles are analyzed by using different approaches. This paper first classifies the previous studies based on criteria as follows: the measure of organizational culture; the measure of organizational effectiveness and the relationship between them.Next, theoretical model, type of organizational culture, measurement and relationship, etc. are further described in each article. Additional relevant contents such as sector, location, and methodology of the studies are also considered. Finally, basic descriptive analysis is conducted for categorizing the studies. It is found that Competing Values Framework (CVF) is the most widespread model in conducting research on organizational culture during the last two decades. The relationship between organizational culture and organizational effectiveness is strongly supported by numerous empirical studies. However, there is still mechanism in hide as an inconsistent of size effects and direction of the relationship. This issue requires more consideration on mediators, moderators and control variables for better understanding the role of organizational culture toward organizational effectiveness.  

The living standard inequality in Vietnam: A statistical analysis

Phan Van Phuc
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This paper analyses income inequality in Vietnam in the 2000s based upon the Gini coefficient method. Compared with other conventional measures (i.e. the Lorenz curve, the Atkinson and the Theil’s approach), the Gini coefficient draws a clearer picture of inequality since it provides unique results irrespective of varying social attitude to inequality (inequality aversion). In contrast, the measures with the Atkinson and Theil indices are strictly subject to changes in inequality aversion which, however, still has ambiguities due to data source constraints. The study shows a moderate level of, and stability in, inequality during 2002–2010. Equitable economic growth with respect to geographical dimensions, migration from rural to urban areas and migrants’ remittance are the main reasons behind the results.       

Study on extraction behavior of vanadium from acidic sulfate solutions

Nguyen Thi Hong, Huynh Huu Hau, Truong Ngoc Quynh Giao
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Extraction behavior of vanadium (V(V)) from the acidic sulfate solutions was investigated using trioctylamine (TOA). The extraction efficiency of V(V) from the acidic sulfate solutions increased with increase of pH value, extractant concentration and O/A phase ratio. The optimum condition for V(V) extraction from the acidic sulfate solutions containing 100 mg/L V(V) was found to be at pH 2.5 using 0.005 M TOA. The V(V) from the loaded TOA was completely stripped by the use of 0.5 M NaOH solution. The regeneration of TOA after stripping process was obtained by washing with distilled water and the recycling capacity of regenerated TOA was no appreciable change.

Comparative study of chitosan/Ag nanocomposites synthesis and test their antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli

Ha Thanh Toan, Tran Thi Bich Quyen, Luong Huynh Vu Thanh, Doan Van Hong Thien, Vo Ngoc Hieu, Nguyen Thi Xuan Chi, Phan Van Hoang Khang, Nguyen Trong Tuan
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A green and simple method has been successfully developed to synthesize chitosan/Ag nanocomposites using Kumquat extract and River-leaf creeper extract as biological reducing agents. It indicates to be an eco-friendly and green method for the synthesis providing a cost effective and an efficient route for the chitosan/Ag nanocomposites’ synthesis. The prepared chitosan/Ag nanocomposites have been characterized by UV-vis, TEM, FTIR, and XRD. Result showed those chitosan/Ag nanocomposites have been obtained with average particle size of ~15-25 nm (using kumquat extract) and ~15-41 nm (using river-leaf creeper extract). Moreover, the synthesized chitosan/Ag nanocomposites also showed their efficient antimicrobial activity against on S. aureus and E. coli. The chitosan/Ag nanocomposite was found to have significantly higher antimicrobial activity than its components at their respective concentrations. The presence of a small percentage (2.75%, w/w) of metal nanoparticles in the nanocomposite was enough to significantly enhance inactivation of S. aureus and E. coli as compared with unaltered chitosan. Thus, this eco-friendly method could be a competitive alternative to the conventional physical/chemical methods used for the synthesis of chitosan/Ag nanocompoites. Since, it has a potential to use in biomedical applications, opto-electronics and medical devices in future.

Benzimidazole synthesis via oxidative condensation of 1,2-diaminoarenes with primary amines using MOF-235 as an effective heterogeneous catalyst

Nguyen Thi Ngoc Tran, Lieu Ngoc Thien, Phan Thanh Son Nam, Dang Thi Hang, Dang Huynh Giao
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Iron-organic framework MOF-235 was synthesized from 1,4-benzenedicarboxylic acid and iron(III) chloride by a solvothermal method. Physical characterizations of the solid catalyst were achieved by using a variety of different techniques. The  Fe-MOF was used as an productive heterogeneous catalyst for the synthesis of benzimidazoles via oxidative condensation of primary amines with 1,2-diaminoarenes.  The MOF-235 was found to be more catalytically active for the oxidative condensation of primary amines with 1,2-diaminoarenes than other MOFs. Leaching tests verified that the cyclization of 1,2-phenylenediamine with benzylamine to generate 2-phenyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazole was only possible in the presence of the iron-based framework catalyst, thus indicating that the transformation progressed via truly heterogeneous catalysis.

Syntrophic interaction in organochlorine bioremediation: A review

Chau Thi Anh Thy
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Organochlorine compounds are released in the environment by many sources such as industrial pollution, naturally in marine sponge’s metabolism or agricultural application (pesticides). These compounds can have carcinogenic and lethal effects on human health through an ability to concentrate in biota and magnify in the food chain. In recent years, interest in the microbial biodegradation of pollutants has intensified as effective applications to find sustainable ways to clean up contaminated environments. Enhancing the growth of microbes might already be living at the contaminated site and to add specialized microbes have ability to degrade the contaminants become a common technique known as bioremediation. Understanding how microbial communities metabolize and respond to contaminants is the key to predicting contaminant fate at contaminated sites in bioremediation. The organohalide respiration process under anaerobic conditions involves a consortium of many microorganisms working together with complex relationships known as syntrophy. Syntrophic relationships, such as those observed between fermentative bacteria and methanogens, is an obligate form of mutualism in which both partners are dependent on each other. Syntrophic interactions are a unique niche in nature and play an important role in carbon cycling under anoxic conditions. Associations of syntrophic fermentative organisms and partners that consume fermentation products contribute to the anaerobic biodegradation of organochlorines. Addition of substrates that ferment to H2 to stimulate reductive dechlorination have been demonstrated to be effective in bioremediation applications. However, due to changes in community structure and difficulties in studying the function of individual populations in defined culture, our understanding of syntrophic interactions is still limited.

The government’s policy on EFL teacher professional development: Opportunities and challenges for the Mekong Delta

Dang Vu Hoai Nhan
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This paper is intended as a contribution towards understanding recent professional development in the government’s policy for English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam. The paper offers an account of opportunities and challenges facing EFL teachers in language proficiency training courses. A questionnaire was administered to 61 EFL teacher-as-learners from seven cities and provinces in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam to investigate their opportunities and challenges in improving language skills in language proficiency training courses. The results of the study show that high school EFL teachers made use of the opportunities of the Vietnamese government’s policy for professional development to improve their four English language skills. However, they were challenged by the problems related to the expense and time when taking these courses.

Research on environmental education through extra-curricular activities organized by community resources for primary students in rural areas of Hau Giang province

Le Tran Thanh Liem
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Research was carried out from May 2016 to June 2017 to indentify factors affecting the results of environmental education through extra-curricular activities organized by community resources. Ten primary schools in rural areas (Phung Hiep District, Chau Thanh A District and Long My Town), 50 teachers and 30 students’ parents participated in the research. Sociological survey method was used in the research. Primary data were used in the Binary Logistic Regression model, in which dependant variable Y indicated the impacts of environmental education through extra-curricular activities organized by community resources. Independant variables X include: X1: Equipment; X2: Documents; X3: Students’ age; X4: Budget. The equation of this model is: Loge P(Y=1)/P(Y=0) = -5.933 + 2.840X1 + 3.319X2 + 2.729X3 + 3.582X4. Besides, a summary of options (%) a band score (0 to 10) were used to understand the impacts of factors that affect the results of these environmental education activities. Results of analyzing important factors are as following: Support from primary schools (directions from schools’ Directorate and support from teachers, accounted for 51% as the highest) and student’s parents (made up the highest ratio at 45%) to extra curricular activities for environmental education, requirements of teaching environmental education contents (cleaning-up surrounding areas, given 9 scores as the highest), suitable time for educational activities (in both academic semesters and summer break, accounted for 46% as the highest) and solutions to draw attention from parents to the environment education activities (organizing talk shows, made up the highest ratio of 56%).

Solving a mathematical problem in different ways: A case of calculating the distance from a point to a plane

Bui Phuong Uyen, Duong Huu Tong, Ha Hoang Quoc Thi, Nguyen Quoc Khanh
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Problem solving helps students to consolidate their knowledge, skills and develop their thinking. In particular, solving a mathematical problem in different ways promotes more of this meaning because to do this, students must mobilize a lot of knowledge, skills and many different kinds of thinking. Therefore, one of the ways to develop creative thinking in learning mathematics is to solve a problem in a number of ways. A sample consisted of 138 students in Can Tho city and Hau Giang province and they solved the problem of calculating the distance from a point to a plane. The results showed that a large number of students only solved it in one way and only 32 students addressed it in two ways. Also, when solving the problem, students made many errors for various reasons.   

Effects of different C:N ratios on growth and survival of spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) in the biofloc system

Tran Ngoc Hai, Ly Van Khanh, Nguyen Thanh Phuong, Vo Nam Son
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The objective of this study was to determine the suitable C:N ratio  for growth and survival of spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) cultured in the biofloc system. The experiment was designed randomly with four treatments in different ratios of C:N such as (i) control treatment (without adding molasses); (ii) C:N=10:1; (iii) C:N=15:1; (iv) C:N=20:1, each treatment was triplicated. Spotted scat with average initial weight of 3.59 g were stocked in the 0.5m3 tanks at a density of 40 fish/m3 and cultured at salinity of 5 ppt. Molasses was used to create  and maintain biofloc formation in each treatment. After 4 months of culture, the spotted scat in the C:N=15:1 treatment had an average weight of 34.9 g and was the highest growth, highest survival rate, highest biomass, lower feed conversion ratio, and were significantly different (p

Antibiotic resistance and molecular characteristics of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli isolated from fish pond

Tran Hoa Ly, Hong Mong Huyen, Tran Thi Tuyet Hoa
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Recently, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli was isolated from cultured striped catfish, red tilapia and wild fish in Mekong Delta, Vietnam. ESBL genes are located on plasmids, facilitating their spreads among Gram-negative bacilli bacteria species. To better understand the dissemination of resistance genes in aquatic system, the antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and the molecular characteristics of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates were investigated by disk diffusion method and polymerase chain reaction. The results indicated that: (i) the proportion of antibiotic resistance of ESBL-producing E. coli was relatively high in most type of antibiotics except meropenem and cefoxitin; Considerably, multiple drugs resistance was recorded at high percentage, including 100% for ESBL-producing E. coli isolates of snakehead fish, 90% depended on the figure for striped catfish, 85% for ESBL-producing E. coli isolates of red tilapia and 50% for that of wild fish (ii) the number of ESBL-producing E. coli isolates carrying multiple ESBL genes were 90%, with significantly higher than those of carrying single ESBL gene at just 10%. In addition, the B2 virulence group was mainly isolated from wild fish, which was higher compared to groups of cultured fish (iii) the majority of isolates harbored multiple sulfonamides resistance genes (72.2%), which was significantly higher compared to the percentages of isolates carrying single genes (27.8%). The study illustrated that there were the significant widespread of antibiotic-resistant genes of ESBL-producing E. coli as well as a considerable ratio of multidrug resistance.

Shelf-life evaluation of fresh catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) fillets at different storage temperatures

Ly Nguyen Binh, Tong Thi Anh Ngoc, Phan Nguyen Trang
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Shelf life of fish fillets from tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) was  evaluated on the basis of chemical, microbilological and sensory quality during storage. The catfish fillets packed in Polyamide package combined with vacuum level of 60% were stored at 0, 4, 8, 12± 1.0°C. The quality of packed catfish fillets was assessed at the regular time intervals for a period of 25 days . The changes of quality were strongly dependent on the storage temperatures. The shelf-life of catfish fillets stored at 0, 4, 8, 12oC was therefore prolonged up to 21, 11, 7 and 3 days, respectively. In addition, total volatile basic nitrogen correlated well (r = 0.953) with the total microbial counts while the total microbial counts also correlated well (r = 0.905) with lactic acid bacteria counts. However, the weak correlation was shown between the total volatile basic nitrogen and the lactic acid bacteria counts (r = 0.087). These results obtained can be used as a reference tool to improve fishery quality management and to minimize the economic losses as well.

The reality of violation of patients’ rights under the law on examination and treatment in some provinces of Mekong Delta

Nguyen Thi Bao Anh, Truong Kim Phung
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Recently, Vietnam has reformed the laws and drew up the targets on protection the patients’ rights. Among the important purposes of these works are to raise the number of well-protected patients’ rights. As a territory of Vietnam, Mekong Delta has also been imposed to follow the determined trend of Vietnam. However, in practice, as it has its own particularities, Mekong Delta may breach the common expectations. Hence, to answer for the doubt of the real situation of actual status the patients have been protected in the collected provinces in Mekong, the author conducted research. In 2016, the research was conducted in the selected provinces that have similar characteristics such as Can Tho, Vinh Long, Soc Trang, and Kien Giang to present the status of patients’ rights protection. Based on the results, it is clear that some problems still remain. The results provide reasonable evidence to look for future solutions to the obstacles that hinder the selected provinces as well as Mekong Delta from developing

A DFT study of copper(II) binding to glycyl-L-histidyl-L-Lysine tripeptide

Pham Vu Nhat
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Density functional theory (DFT) is employed to examine the interactions of copper(II) ion and glycyl-L-histidyl-L-lysine tripeptide in both gas phase and aqueous solution. Thermodynamic parameters, electronic structures, and bonding characteristics of the complexes are investigated by using the hybrid functional B3LYP in conjunction with the basis set 6-311++G(d,p). Computed results show that copper(II) ions prefer binding to the peptide via the glycine amino nitrogen, the deprotonated amide nitrogen of glycine–histidine peptide bond, the non-deprotonated amide nitrogen of histidine–lysine peptide bond and the lysine carboxylate oxygen. The interaction is strongly dominated by electrostatic effects, namely hydrogen bond contributions.

New bounds on poisson approximation for random sums of independent negative-binomial randomvariables

Le Truong Giang, Trinh Huu Nghiem
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The aim of this paper is to establish new bounds on Poisson approximation for random sums of independent negative-binomial random variables. The bounds showed in current paper are a uniform bound and a non-uniform bound.  The received results in this paper are extensions and generalizations of known results.

Plasmon excitation in MLG-GaAs heterostructure - Analytical expressions in long-wavelength limit

Nguyen Van Men, Dong Thi Kim Phuong
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Plasmon excitation plays important roles in many-body systems’ properties such as screening and drag in layer structures and is applied in plasmonic and photonic technology. This research is to consider the analytical expressions of plasmon frequencies in a double layer system made of mono–layer graphene (MLG) and GaAs quantum well with separation of  and nonhomogeneous dielectric background at zero temperature. In this research, random–phase–approximation (RPA) is used to calculate the dielectric function of the system and to determine the plasmon modes by finding out zeroes of the function. Results represent that the zeroes of dielectric function admit two solutions (as in the case of semiconductor double quantum well systems or double-layer graphene – DLG), corresponding for optical (OP) and acoustic (AC) branch, respectively. Meanwhile the frequency of the former is proportional to root square of wave vector and depends on the dielectric constant of the surrounding layers, the frequency of the later is proportional to wave vector and depends on dielectric constant of contacting media and quantum well in long wavelength limit.

Glass formation and thermodynamics of 3D simple system

Dang Minh Tan, Pham Thanh Hieu, Nguyen Huu Toan, Ha Ngan Ha
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We present molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of 3D simple monatomic supercooled liquid and glassy states obtained by cooling from liquid to glassy state. Models contain 2744 particles interacted via Lennard-Jones-Gauss potential. Evolution of structure and various thermodynamic properties upon cooling from liquid to glassy state is analyzed in detail via radial distribution function (RDF), temperature dependence of potential energy, mass density, time – temperature dependence of mean - squared displacement (MSD), coordination number distribution, bond-angle distribution, fraction of solidlike atoms and 3D visualization of atomic configurations. Via intensive MD simulation of glass formation in 3D simple supercooled liquids we find that fraction of solidlike atoms (i.e. with the slowest mobility) increases monotonously with a sudden increase in the vicinity of glass transition reaching almost 100% at low temperature to form a solid glassy state. 

Synthesis and cytotoxicity evaluation of naphthalenecarboxamide derivatives

Bui Thi Buu Hue, Duong Huynh Luong, Huynh Minh Huy
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The core structure ethyl 4-acetoxy-6,8-dimethoxynaphthalene-2-carboxylate was successfully synthesized via a two step sequence including Stobbe condensation followed by cyclisation from 2,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde as the starting material. The ethyl ester moiety was then hydrolyzed to form the corresponding carboxylic acid which was subsequently in situ converted to carboxyl chorides by reacting with thionyl chloride and then to carboxamides derivatives by treating with  4-methylbenzylamine and 3-morpholinopropylamine. The structures of the synthesized compounds were fully confirmed based on MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and DEPT spectroscopy data. Cytotoxicity evaluation showed that the two prepared napthalenecarboxamide derivatives had weak cytotoxicity against Lu cells and moderate cytotoxicity against Hep-G2 cell lines.