Nguyen Dien Trung , Nguyen Phuong Tung Le and Thi Hong Nguyen *

* Correspondence: Thi Hong Nguyen (email:

Main Article Content


In this work, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized by the extract of Citrus maxima (C. maxima) peel with the presence of pectin as a principal reductant and stabilizer. Parameters such as concentration of C. maxima powder, extraction temperature, and extraction time for AgNPs synthesis have been studied. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and transmission electron microscopy instrument (TEM). The synthesized AgNPs were quasi-spheres with an average particle size of 17 nm and high purity of silver phases. In addition, synthesized AgNPs exhibited good antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria: Salmonella enterica (S. enterica) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) while no activity inhibited against Gram-negative bacteria: Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Lactobacillus fermentum (L. fermentum).

Keywords: Citrus maxima; Green synthesis; High purity; Pectin; Silver nanoparticles

Article Details


Arokiyaraj, S., Arasu, M. V., Vincent, S., Prakash, N. U., Choi, S. H., Oh, Y. K., Choi, K. C., & Kim, K. H., (2014). Rapid green synthesis of silver nanoparticles from Chrysanthemum indicum L and its antibacterial and cytotoxic effects: an in vitro study. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 9, 379-388.

Balachandran, Y. L., Panarin, A. Y., Khodasevich, I. A., Terekhov, S. N., Gutleb, A. C., & Girijaa, S., (2015). Environmentally friendly preparation of gold and silver nanoparticles for SERS applications using biopolymer pectin. Journal of Applied Spectroscopy, 81(6), 962-968.

Fakayode, O. A. & Abobi, K. E., (2018). Optimization of oil and pectin extraction from orange (Citrus sinensis) peels: a response surface approach. Journal of Analytical Science and Technology, 9(1), 20.

Guibaud, G., Tixier, N., Bouju, A., & Baudu, M., (2003). Relation between extracellular polymers' composition and its ability to complex Cd, Cu and Pb. Chemosphere, 52(10), 1701-1710.

Guzman, M., Dille, J., & Godet, S., (2012). Synthesis and antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. Nanomedicine, 8(1), 37-45.

Hileuskaya, K., Ladutska, A., Kulikouskaya, V., Kraskouski, A., Novik, G., Kozerozhets, I., Kozlovskiy, A., & Agabekov, V., (2020). ‘Green’ approach for obtaining stable pectin-capped silver nanoparticles: Physico-chemical characterization and antibacterial activity. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 585, 124141.

Jagtap, U. B. & Bapat, V. A., (2013). Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. seed extract and its antibacterial activity. Industrial Crops and Products, 46, 132-137.

Jeeva, K., Thiyagarajan, M., Elangovan, V., Geetha, N., & Venkatachalam, P., (2014). Caesalpinia coriaria leaf extracts mediated biosynthesis of metallic silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity against clinically isolated pathogens. Industrial Crops and Products, 52, 714-720.

Khan, M., Khan, M., Adil, S. F., Tahir, M. N., Tremel, W., Alkhathlan, H. Z., Al-Warthan, A., & Siddiqui, M. R. H., (2013). Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles mediated by Pulicaria glutinosa extract. International Journal of Nanomedicine, 8, 1507-1516.

Košťálová, Z., Hromádková, Z., & Ebringerová, A., (2013). Structural diversity of pectins isolated from the Styrian oil-pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo var. styriaca) fruit. Carbohydrate Polymers, 93(1), 163-171.

Nguyen, T. D., Nguyen, D. P., Hoang, Y. H., Nguyen, T. T., & Nguyen, H. T., (2021). Rapid synthesis of silver nanoparticles using the extract of Psidium guajava leaf based on light-emitting diodes irradiation. Chemical Papers, 75(11), 5623-5631.

Pallavicini, P., Arciola, C. R., Bertoglio, F., Curtosi, S., Dacarro, G., D'Agostino, A., Ferrari, F., Merli, D., Milanese, C., Rossi, S., Taglietti, A., Tenci, M., & Visai, L., (2017). Silver nanoparticles synthesized and coated with pectin: An ideal compromise for anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm action combined with wound-healing properties. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 498, 271-281.

Rubaiyi, M. Z., Zularisam, A. W., & Mimi Sakinah, A. M., (2016). Effect of process parameters on pectin extraction from dragon fruit. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 10(17), 69-74.

Siddiqi, K. S., Husen, A., & Rao, R. A. K., (2018). A review on biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles and their biocidal properties. Journal of Nanobiotechnology, 16(1), 1-28.

Suresh, G., Gunasekar, P. H., Kokila, D., Prabhu, D., Dinesh, D., Ravichandran, N., Ramesh, B., Koodalingam, A., & Vijaiyan Siva, G., (2014). Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Delphinium denudatum root extract exhibits antibacterial and mosquito larvicidal activities. Spectrochimica Acta Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 127, 61-66.

Wani, I. A., Ganguly, A., Ahmed, J., & Ahmad, T., (2011). Silver nanoparticles: Ultrasonic wave assisted synthesis, optical characterization and surface area studies. Materials Letters, 65(3), 520-522.

Yang, J., Yin, H., Jia, J., & Wei, Y., (2011). Facile synthesis of high-concentration, stable aqueous dispersions of uniform silver nanoparticles using aniline as a reductant. Langmuir, 27(8), 5047-5053.

Zahran, M. K., Ahmed, H. B., & El-Rafie, M. H., (2014). Facile size-regulated synthesis of silver nanoparticles using pectin. Carbohydrate Polymers, 111, 971-978.

Zhang, W., Qiao, X., & Chen, J., (2007). Synthesis of silver nanoparticles: Effects of concerned parameters in water/oil microemulsion. Materials Science and Engineering: B, 142(1), 1-15.

Zhang, W., Zhao, X. J., Jiang, Y., & Zhou, Z., (2017). Citrus pectin derived silver nanoparticles and their antibacterial activity. Inorganic and Nano-Metal Chemistry, 47(1), 15-20.